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According to Hudson (1998), code switching is used by teachers as a result of their poor proficiency in the foreign language. The same author adds that teachers use this linguistic technique (code switching) in order to help their students achieve a desired understanding. The results in table 5 complement the author’s findings since the frequency of respondents who agreed to using code switching because of the convenience in explanation was forty percent. This could also imply that multilingual speakers apply code switching when communicating cultural concepts that can only be understood in their native languages. In a different study, Bassiouney (2009) argues that code switching is used to exhibit solidarity. The fact that 23.3 percent of the study population used code switching for solidarity purposes is a clear indication that Bassiouney (2009) was right. It is also clear that some speakers apply code switching for social purposes because of a percentage frequency of 13. 4 in table 5. This argument is shared by Haliza et al., (2011).
The results also indicate that 46.6 percent of the study population preferred to communicate in Arabic, 6.8 percent in English, and 46.6 percent in both English and Arabic. It should be noted that the frequency of the study population that preferred to use English is relatively low while that of Arabic or both Arabic and English is high. This is a possible reason for the study population to practice code switching because it is evident that the population is not proficient in English. While examining the effects of code switching on multilingual speakers, the results indicated that 26.7 percent of the population under study received positive outcomes from code switching. Another 26.7 percent of the study population highlighted that code switching has negative effects, while 46.6 percent did not experience the effects of code switching. This reveals that code switching has both positive and negative effects because it could weaken one language and strengthen another language.
It is clear that the results from this study highlight the idea of using code switching to facilitate a better understanding, which is present in Hudson’s 1998 publication on sociolinguistics. The same results also stress different ideas from the US Department of Defense (2013), Haliza et al., (2011), Bassiouney (2009), and Flyman-Mattsson, and Burenhult (1999) that have been stated in the literature review.
In conclusion, this paper has made significant progress in the field of social linguistics owing to the fact that this knowledge is applicable to teachers and policy makers in Bahrain High School.
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In addition, teachers from Bahrain High School should take into account students’ attitudes towards code switching when teaching. For instance, separating students into different classes on the basis of their attitudes towards code switching will help both students and teachers. This is because students that favor code switching will be taught using code switching while those that oppose code switching will be taught in either English or Arabic.