The reason affirmative action is necessary in some parts of in American society is because of the historical significance of racism that embodies American history. As a result, minorities as well as women in the employment industry, and educational system have suffered for not meeting such “requirements”. Often times institutional racism is subtle, unconscious, and rationalize on the basis of nonracial criteria, and does not take the form of overt discrimination like individual racism (McClain, 8 & Crosby, 95). Thus, universities and places of employment may be operating in a manner that is unfair to minorities and women, and may not necessarily be aware of it. In a random sample study of 244 managers, it was found that they characterized female managers more negatively than they did the males, and they assumed that women are unsuited to the rough and tumble world of high-status jobs (Crosby, 101).
As a result of such prejudices, Crosby et. al, as well as McClain show that equal opportunity is not always the answer to allow for integration and advancement of minority groups. It is described as a “passive policy” (Crosby, 95) by assuming all discrimination is intentional, and it assumes that victims of said discrimination will take steps toward fighting these indiscretions. Such an idea is absurd because even if a student or potential employee takes the institution to court, it is unlikely that he or she could win without policies like affirmative action. This can be attributed to the fact that institutional racism is hard to quantify without specific evidence. In contrast, affirmative actions allows for an, “Implemented plan for taking concrete measures to eliminate the barriers and to establish true equality...
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...ss. My thoughts are aided in a study, minorities were seen to have scored drastically lower on standardized test when applying to college, but still graduated from the same universities with slightly lower GPAs (Crosby, 101)
After carefully thinking about the subject, my theory on the concept of affirmative action as a necessary evil. Though it directly uses race and discrimination in order to preference or discard a certain kind of individual, it prevails in giving opportunity to minorities to better themselves. McClain said it well by citing that even though schools or work places may be desegregated, it is not surely synonymous with equal educational opportunity (McClain 191). Due to the fact that some individuals—especially minorities and women—face social stigmatic stereotypes as well as limitations in access to life-bettering opportunities due to coming up in a
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