The purpose of this research is introduce the concept of how fourth grade students with documented learning disabilities can achieve greater reading fluency with repetitive reading while comparing and contrasting three theories: Ehri’s Stages of Reading Development, Chall’s Stages of Reading Development, and Piaget’s Stages of Child Development with a focus on concrete operations.
“The 2005 Nation’s Report Card indicated that only 31% of fourth-grade students could read at a proficient level. Additionally, the majority of special education referrals are for reading problems” (Williams & Skinner, 2011, p. 87). “Recently, there has been an increased attention to reading fluency. The individual constituents of fluency and the relationships of fluency to comprehension have been of particular interest” (Klauda & Guthrie, 2008, p. 310). Findings in used to synthesize research on interventions found that building fluency required an explicit model which incorporated repeated and multiple readings of familiar texts. (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler 2002).
The research on fluency has been both extensive and a labor of love by those who carry the passion of obtaining true automaticity and generalization in the realm of reading fluency and comprehe...
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...sessment: issues of construct, criterion, and consequential validity. Reading Research Quarterly, 45 (3), 270-322.
Westein, G., Cook, L. (1992). The effects of two repeated reading interventions on generalization of fluency. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 21-28.
Williams, J., Skinner, C, (2011). Words correct per minute: the variance in standardized reading scores accounted for by reading speed. Psychology in the Schools, 48 (2), 87-101.
Yurick, A. L., Robinson, P. D., Cartledge, G., Lo, Y.-y., & Evans, T. L. (2006). Using peer- mediated repeated readings as a fluency-building activity for urban learners. Education & Treatment of Children, 29, 469-506.
Ya-yu, L., Cooke, N., Starling, L. (2011). Using a repeated reading program to improve generalization of oral reading fluency. Education and Treatment of Children, 34 (1), 115-126.
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