Empirical evidence confirms the existence of racial profiling on American roadways. At the national level, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that in 2005, “police actions taken during a traffic stop were not uniform across racial and ethnic categories. Black drivers (4.5%) were twice as likely as White drivers (2.1%) to be arrested during a traffic stop, while Hispanic drivers (65%) were more likely than White (56.2%) or Black (55.8%) drivers to receive a ticket. In addition, Whites (9.7%) were more likely than Hispanics (5.9%) to receive a written warning, while Whites (18.6%) were more likely than Blacks (13.7%) to be verbally warned by police.” Obviously, racial profiling exists. Ironically, “the U.S. Supreme Court has held tha...
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