Ethnic identity is defined as defining oneself the personal and social meaning of belonging to one particular ethnic group (Cushner, McClelland and Safford). Racial identity is similar in theory, but only differs in physical appearance. This model describes the five stage process of moving from a low racial consciousness, through a period of active examination of what it means to be black, [Mexican, or Native] and internalize a positive identity (Cushner, McClelland and Safford). These five stages are pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, immersion, and internalization. This model was then applies to all minority and immigrant groups in the country.
The first stage of pre-encounter, people have self-hatred about their culture and self. They believe in most stereotypes that are shown through the ...
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...ed by the writers of all of these poems and novels, and it represents the struggle of many people who have assimilated to the dominant culture or who are trying. I will continue to study this concept and extend my research even further to understand the entire minority and immigrant experience.
Anaya, Rudolfo. BLESS ME ULTIMA. New York, Boston: Grand Central Publishing, 1994. Print.
Cushner, Kenneth, Averil McClelland and Philip Safford. Human Diversity in Education. 7th. New York: McGraw Hill, 2012. Print.
Hughes, Langston. Literature 4332: American Minority Literature. n.d. Web. 3 May 2013.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Literature 4332: American Minority Literature. n.d. Web. 4 May 2013.
Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: The Penguin Group, 1970. Print.
Zitkala-Sa. Literature: 4332 American Minority Literature. n.d. Web. 5 May 2013.
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