Essay Qurum Sensing Biosensors Analysis

Essay Qurum Sensing Biosensors Analysis

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Microbial world frequently face abrupt changes in the surrounding environment. For the survival in such a dynamic environment, it is advantageous to take decision of future action in advance at the population level. Bacteria do so by a phenomenon called quorum sensing (QS), which is sensing the presence of other bacteria in surrounding environment, and taking the decision at a certain threshold cell density. In QS active state, bacteria induces certain set of target genes at population level. QS among bacteria is mediated by autoinducers (AIs), whose concentration is a function of cell density, and above a certain concentration of cells AI mediate QS. There are three classes of AIs, (a) AI-1: chemically these are acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). These are of several types, based on their acyl side chain, and substitutions at 3rd C in acyl side chain. AHL type quorum sensing takes place primarily in gram-negative bacteria and is involved primarily in intraspecies signaling; (b) AI-2: chemically it is furanosyl borate diester. AI-2 was first identified in marine bacterium V. harveyi. AI-2 is produced and recognized by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and is involved in interspecies communication and; (c) Autoinducing peptide (AIP): gram-positive bacteria typically use modified oligopeptide autoinducers. AIPs are recognized by membrane bound histidine kinase receptor. AIP bound receptor activates a phosphorylation cascade that alters the activity of a DNA binding transcriptional regulatory protein termed as a response regulator protein, which subsequently alters the expression of target genes. QS regulates a diverse range of physiological processes including bioluminescence, virulence determinants, plasmid conjugal transf...

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...& medicinal chemistry, 21, 242-56.
WINSON, M. K., SWIFT, S., FISH, L., THROUP, J. P., JORGENSEN, F., CHHABRA, S. R., BYCROFT, B. W., WILLIAMS, P. & STEWART, G. S. 1998. Construction and analysis of luxCDABE-based plasmid sensors for investigating N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing. FEMS microbiology letters, 163, 185-92.
ZHU, J., BEABER, J. W., MORE, M. I., FUQUA, C., EBERHARD, A. & WINANS, S. C. 1998. Analogs of the autoinducer 3-oxooctanoyl-homoserine lactone strongly inhibit activity of the TraR protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of bacteriology, 180, 5398-405.
ZHU, J., CHAI, Y., ZHONG, Z., LI, S. & WINANS, S. C. 2003. Agrobacterium bioassay strain for ultrasensitive detection of N-acylhomoserine lactone-type quorum-sensing molecules: detection of autoinducers in Mesorhizobium huakuii. Applied and environmental microbiology, 69, 6949-53.

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