Chapter Short Answer Questions
1(a and b). The most important factor in the Industrial Revolution is ample supply of natural resources that Britain had. The steam engines primarily depended on coal, and Britain took advantage of the abundant supply of coal to power the steam engines. In fact, coal was used extensively in many industries, including the cotton industry (increased production by a ridiculous margin), the iron industry (coke was used in puddling), and the railroad industry (powered the locomotives). Another resource that was pivotal to the Industrial Revolution in Britain was iron ore. Iron ore is needed to produce high quality iron, which in turn is needed to build machines, steam engines, locomotives and railroads. If iron ore and coal weren’t as abundant as they were in the Industrial Revolution, Britain would be less productive and would not have enjoyed such as strong economic advantage over its Continental rivals.
c. A factor that was not as strong was the government. While a system that protected economic interests could be used to promote economic growth, the real reason why Britain had an Industrial Revolution is that it could produce and transport many goods cheaply. If it weren’t for THAT factor, Britain would enjoy a significant but not overwhelming economic advantage over its Continental rivals.
2a. One way the industrialization in the Continental differed from that of Britain is that the Continental governments played a much greater role. Those governments awarded grants, exempted certain equipment from taxes, financed the construction of factories, and used tariffs. They also supported the construction of railroads, roads, canals, and river channels. The tariffs were used to ...
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...us health hazards for the children. They were frequently beaten as well. Children were used in mines for reasons other than cheaper wages. They can be used to draw and thrutch the baskets. In the rural areas, children were seen as a very important component of the family economy since they helped their families make their ends meet. In the urban areas, children were seen as less valuable than adult men. There are several reasons why it took so long to pass legislation that eliminated child labor in the mines. Europeans were primarily concerned with making a lot of money at that time and didn’t want to lose many workers. The children could easily be disciplined by the factory owners. Many of the industrialists lobbied against intervention as well. Only boys under 10 were included in the ban on child labor since the older children are considered strong enough to work.
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