The Question of Biology is "Why?" Essay

The Question of Biology is "Why?" Essay

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In biology, one only comes to know so much about a subject before one begins to compare it to other things. As humans, we are comparative by nature—always wondering what is the best between multiple things (if it even is) and why. That is why we do it, ultimately. We feel that we must answer the question “Why?” In this biographical paper, I will be analyzing two very different processes: DNA Replication and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). It is that each of these individual processes carries much importance. DNA replication is important in the life of a cell, more so the division, because when a cell divides both of the daughter cells need identical DNA to function properly. PCR is important in that it allows amplification of DNA and isolation of DNA. PCR is also used to analyze DNA samples (used widely in crime scene investigation units) and allows scientists to work with DNA samples they previously could not. I will give a brief overview as to what the purpose of each process is, but I will focus more so on the individual differences and on the individual similarities between the two processes.
DNA Replication is a very intricate, deliberate and interesting process that, essentially, makes us who we are and keeps us that way. This process is highly important because DNA carries all of the information for making every single protein within a cell and these proteins implement all of the functions within us. When one of our cells (somatic cells) reproduces it passes on all of this information to the daughter cells through mitosis. The actual DNA Replication, however, is not so simple. It requires a number of enzymes and follows a pattern unique to each individual strand of DNA being replicated.
All DNA replication occurs at ...

... middle of paper ...

...iming to occur. More differences include that DNA replication is semi discontinuous and both strands are manufactured quite differently—a leading strand is continuously made while a lagging strand is made in fragments (Okazaki fragments) while in PCR, the DNA strands are replicated equally. More differences encompass the end result of both processes. In DNA replication the end result is two complete strands of DNA, whereas in PCR the replicated DNA is only a fragment of the original strand. A huge difference between the two processes is how they deal with the “road blocks” of replication. When DNA replication fails to produce two strands of equal length, then it enlists the help of telomerase that extends the ends by using a complementary and repetitive sequence. In PCR, restriction endonuclease is used in order to isolate the targeted DNA sequence for replication.

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