The research design of this study is clearly presented in the beginning of the article within the title. This quantitative study used 2 x 2 mixed model design to conduct their study, which included an experimental group and a control group (Sullivan-Mann et al, 2009). This method was appropriate because it compared each groups results to see if the results vary therefore testing the hypothesis and answering the research question. The experimental design used was the pre-test/post-test, which was the most appropriate design used because it compared the experimental and control group to evaluate if the critical thinking scores varied among the groups. The ways in which this experimental design protected internal validity was by utilizing randomization, which prevented selection bias, limiting the amount of time to conduct the study, which reduced the incidence of mortality and applying the pre-test/post-test evaluation to protect against all threats to internal validity (Sullivan-Mann et al, 2009). One disadvantage to this quantitative study is its threat to external validity. The threat that is a concern is the reactive affect to the pre-test. By giving a pre-test, the subjects are being sensitized to the material being tested, which can affect the validity of their post test scores. This research design allows the researcher to conclude an independent and dependent relationship between the variables. The independent variable being simulation scenario and the dependent variable being critical thinking. In this experimental design, the researcher chose not to control the extraneous variables, which resulted in a number of limitations.
Population and Sample
The target population identified in this stu...
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...rse (Sullivan-Mann et al, 2009). At the end of the study, students were given the post test to determine if critical thinking was enhanced. The reliability was not specifically stated, however knowing it was a true experimental study, it can be inferred that reliability was obtained. A threat to external validity was inferred, but not clearly stated being the reactive effects of the pre-test. The study also had threats to internal validity, which was not clearly stated. The researcher stated that the sample group was small, but did not state how this effected validity. However, based on our knowledge of research we can infer that mortality was a threat to this study. Due to the small group and the two students that dropped out of the study after taking the pre-test, the results in the end could have been skewed based upon their results (Sullivan-Mann et al, 2009).
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