Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) is a fine powdered waste product from electricity generation in coal-fired power stations, which has a range of uses associated with both technical and environmental benefits (Carroll, 2013). A main one been that it can be applied as an alternative to primary aggregates, for example in road construction and in building materials. Trace elements in PFA have the potential to be leached into the environment in varying amounts upon contact of the solid with water (Izquierdo & Querol, 2012). This potential for pollution of the aqueous environment is a cause for concern at higher concentrations than background levels, which could potentially impact human or environmental health.
PFA is controlled under the Waste Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to transform the EU into a recycling society based on the waste hierarchy (EUCommission, 2014b), with a target of 70% recovery of construction and demolition wastes for 2020 (DEFRA, 2011). The WFD offers the opportunity to remove wastes from control if they can be both safely and beneficially used. Unfortunately, uncertainty surrounds the process of defining when waste ceases to be waste and is fully recovered due to the fact that the definition is not clear within the EU documentation (EUParliment & EUCouncil, 2008; WRAP & EA, 2010). This has inhibited the development of beneficial materials from waste alongside uncertainty of long-term leaching behaviour in the environment (Vandecasteele & van der Sloot, 2011) and is a significant barrier to its use and handling in the UK. Due to these issues, the additional disciplinary perspective that will be used to analyse the EngD project’s contribution to resilience and sustainability in this essay will be th...
... middle of paper ...
... Business and Social Science, 2(11), pp. 173-176.
RSA, 2013. The Great Recovery redesigning the future, London: RSA.
Spears, D. A. & Lee, S., 2004. Geochemistry of leachates from coal ash. Geological Society Special Publications, Volume 236, pp. 619-639.
Vandecasteele, C. & van der Sloot, H. A., 2011. Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction. Waste Management, Volume 31, pp. 199-200.
WCED, 1987. Our Common Future, Europe: UN.
WHO, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being Health Synthesis, Geneva: World Health Organisation.
WRAP, 2014. Water Pollution and Land Contamination. [Online]
Available at: http://aggregain.wrap.org.uk/recycling_infrastructure/environmental_impacts_of_aggregate_recycling/water_pollution.html
[Accessed 28 March 2014].
WRAP & EA, 2010. Quality Protocol Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Banbury: Environment Agency.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Coal Ash Spill of 2008 On the Sunday before Christmas my Great Aunt, Janice James, did not suspect her and the lives of her family would be changed forever. I am lucky to, still, have her around to gain more personal information from the traumatic event, that was not all included in the national news stories. If you just looked out Janice James ' back window you would know exactly why she and her husband, Perry James, chose to live on Lakeshore Drive, it was stunning. The Emory River widens as it passes through the neighborhood to create a picturesque view that she would wake up to everyday.... [tags: Coal, Fossil fuel, Fly ash, Kingston Fossil Plant]
1318 words (3.8 pages)
- Tennessee coal ash spill occurred in December 22, 2008. A dike failed at Tennessee Valley Authority spilling billion gallons of coal ash. The ash had been stored and contained arsenic, selenium, lead and radioactive materials. These materials are very toxic. This spill is an example of environmental crime because it was caused by the Tennessee Valley Authority. An environmental crime is considered to be a white collar crime also known as corporation crime (Beder, 2002, pg 213). News media highly covered this crime in different ways.... [tags: Coal, Nuclear power, Fly ash]
1205 words (3.4 pages)
- Should we then abandon fossil fuel completely and change to a cleaner type of fuel. Fossil fuel has always been the blame on the bad and polluted environment that we have right now. But we still use fossil fuel, or in this paper we call it petroleum, because it is highly efficient to use it for our transportation fuel. The ‘abundant’ reserve and the increasing development of technology to harness it efficiently from beneath us has made us realize that petroleum is the best fuel for our transportation needs.... [tags: petroleum, biodiesel, oil, fuel]
2019 words (5.8 pages)
- As fossil fuels continue to be targeted for removal in the use as a source of power many talk about the use of hydrogen fuel cells as a replacement. The article discus this from two view points, Joan Ogden, a Professor of Environmental Science and Policy at the University of California, and Daniel Sperling , Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy, and Director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, describe how many countries have begun projects in regards to hydrogen fuel cells and that car companies have announced commercialized versions in the near future.... [tags: Hydrogen Fuel Cells]
1024 words (2.9 pages)
- One of the most significant current discussions in sustainable aviation is alternative fuel for airplane, which is a serious argument; however, big question is that efforts to produce a more sustainable fuel to power aircraft are technically and ethically feasible. This paper going to investigate and show there is no alternative fuel to power aircraft in this time. The fuel using by airplane is fossil fuel, which is Jet A1 by burning this fuel there are impact on the global warming the researcher investigate what is the problem with fossil fuel (Jet A1).... [tags: Energy, Sustainable Fuel]
2199 words (6.3 pages)
- Algae: Plant to Bio-fuel Introduction There is a lot of talk about the world’s source of energy going on these days and people are starting to ask questions about our sources of energy. Is it environmentally friendly. Does it make sense economically. For years the world has been highly dependent on fossil fuels that are extracted from the ground. These fuels power things from power plants, cars, plains, and many of the other modern conveniences that we enjoy. There is a lot of energy expended in the extraction and transport of these fuels as well as many negative environmental impacts.... [tags: clean fuel sources]
898 words (2.6 pages)
- Algae: Bio Fuel of the Future Bio Fuels are clearly the most suitable alternative energy of the future as oil and coal are both rapidly vanishing and increasingly out of interest for nations wishing to avoid terrorist nations. Recently, algae has been discovered as an extremely suitable bio fuel because of its surprisingly high ratio of yield to area required for growth. In 1960 Oswald and Golweke proposed the use of large‐scale ponds for cultivating algae on wastewater nutrients and anaerobically fermenting the biomass into methane fuel.... [tags: Biofuel Fuel Energy Power]
1224 words (3.5 pages)
- Fuel taxes also know as a gas or petrol tax. Fuel tax is the sale tax that is imposed on the sale of fuel. The united states often dedicate funds to transportation so that fuel tax will be user free. There are some countries that are considered to be general revenue. The nature of demand for petrol in the short run the tax will be an effective source of revenue, but in the long run it is predicted that people adjust the consumption of petrol, this will take time, people will consume less as prices increase over time.... [tags: Oil Petrol Gas Fuel ]
1959 words (5.6 pages)
- Hydrogen can be "packaged" in several ways, as a fuel gas in a H2/02 powered engine or the newly devised solid state pellet of hydrogen isotopes that contains about the equivalent of 5000 cubic feet of hydrogen and is broken down and releases gas into the second chamber where it goes to the engine for use. There are many ways to get pure hydrogen out of many compounds using methods such as electrolysis and chemical reactions. One of the easiest ways is using a chemical reaction. Simple chemicals (aluminum,sodium hydroxide, and water) can be reacted in the home to produce heavy hydrogen to power your furnace or your hot water heater .... [tags: Hydrogen Fuel H2/02]
429 words (1.2 pages)
- Self-Sustaining Fuel With the demand for oil rising, the price of gas continues to rise to astronomical levels. With oil levels all over the world falling, companies have been looking to alternative sources of fuel and energy for cars. Different forms of fuel have been emerging from many places. Scientists and Engineers have found alternative fuels in the form of alcohol, electricity, natural gas, bio-diesel, and a combination of gas and one of the other three. This never ending search for new and better fuel sources has opened up a new field and automakers are adapting to it as it comes.... [tags: Renewable Energy Fuel Oil]
1443 words (4.1 pages)