Pulverised Fuel Ash Essay

Pulverised Fuel Ash Essay

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Introduction
Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) is a fine powdered waste product from electricity generation in coal-fired power stations, which has a range of uses associated with both technical and environmental benefits (Carroll, 2013). A main one been that it can be applied as an alternative to primary aggregates, for example in road construction and in building materials. Trace elements in PFA have the potential to be leached into the environment in varying amounts upon contact of the solid with water (Izquierdo & Querol, 2012). This potential for pollution of the aqueous environment is a cause for concern at higher concentrations than background levels, which could potentially impact human or environmental health.
PFA is controlled under the Waste Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to transform the EU into a recycling society based on the waste hierarchy (EUCommission, 2014b), with a target of 70% recovery of construction and demolition wastes for 2020 (DEFRA, 2011). The WFD offers the opportunity to remove wastes from control if they can be both safely and beneficially used. Unfortunately, uncertainty surrounds the process of defining when waste ceases to be waste and is fully recovered due to the fact that the definition is not clear within the EU documentation (EUParliment & EUCouncil, 2008; WRAP & EA, 2010). This has inhibited the development of beneficial materials from waste alongside uncertainty of long-term leaching behaviour in the environment (Vandecasteele & van der Sloot, 2011) and is a significant barrier to its use and handling in the UK. Due to these issues, the additional disciplinary perspective that will be used to analyse the EngD project’s contribution to resilience and sustainability in this essay will be th...


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... Business and Social Science, 2(11), pp. 173-176.
RSA, 2013. The Great Recovery redesigning the future, London: RSA.
Spears, D. A. & Lee, S., 2004. Geochemistry of leachates from coal ash. Geological Society Special Publications, Volume 236, pp. 619-639.
Vandecasteele, C. & van der Sloot, H. A., 2011. Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction. Waste Management, Volume 31, pp. 199-200.
WCED, 1987. Our Common Future, Europe: UN.
WHO, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being Health Synthesis, Geneva: World Health Organisation.
WRAP, 2014. Water Pollution and Land Contamination. [Online]
Available at: http://aggregain.wrap.org.uk/recycling_infrastructure/environmental_impacts_of_aggregate_recycling/water_pollution.html
[Accessed 28 March 2014].
WRAP & EA, 2010. Quality Protocol Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Banbury: Environment Agency.

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