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After a person dies the causes of death seems to have been obvious but before knowing, the cause of death could have been anything. During a season finale on television you learn the answers to questions created throughout the season and it becomes obvious that, that would have happened. When the episode before the finale there were many choices for how it could have ended. After the answer has been found the obvious of it makes you think you knew it all along, therefore you get the “I knew-it all-along phenomenon”.
Robert Vallone had his students predict at the beginning of the school year if they would do certain tasks. He found the 84% were confident making these predictions, and even if the student was 100% sure of their answer they were wrong 15% of the time.
Philip Tetlock found that experts that had felt 80% or more confident in their predictions where less then 40% correct most of the time.
Randi asked an aura-seer if they could tell where he was behind a wall barely taller then him from the aura above his head. His point in proving this was that a person can not see auras from people. He was skeptic about and questioned it.
The results at the end of an experiment are not based on anybody’s opinion but the facts that are found during the experiment.
Four examples that critical inquiry have found surprising; 1. Within the first few days of life an infant can recognize their mother’s sent and voice. 2. Massive loss of brain tissue early in life can have minimal effects long term. 3. Diverse groups result in comparable levels of personal joy. 4. Brain damage can help a person learn new skills without the person knowing. Four examples of critical thinking being proved wrong; 1. Sleepwalkers are not walking out their dreams and sleep talkers are not saying what’s happening in their dream. 2. Opposites do not always attract. 3. Past experiences that happen to us are not recorded word for word in our brains. 4. Most people do not suffer from unreal low self- esteem and high self- esteem isn’t good either.
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You start with a theory explaining that low self-esteem leads to depression; then you make your hypothesis stating that people with low self-esteem rank higher on the depression scale. After that you research and observe that weather or not based on test where people score on the two scales.
If a theory is organized in a range of self reports and observations, and had clear implications that anyone can use the theory and can come up with similar results it will be useful.
Knowing a country has high-tech weapons creates a theory that that country would use them against other countries. The theory then makes other countries anxious and they invade that country to try and stop them from using those weapons.
When one individual is studied to make a statement true to all people it could be misleading because not every person is the same. If you were to study the side effects after having a stroke and find out they now had short-term memory loss, and say after having a stroke everyone has short-term memory loss when in fact it is not true of all people.
Jean Piaget was able to tell us about the way children think after only asking a few children what they thought. Also when a few chimpanzees were studied they discovered that they have the capacity for learning language.
If you wanted to find out how many people liked Kroger over Publix you could ask it two ways: “Would you rather shop at Kroger or Publix?” or “Is Kroger a better place to shop at then Publix?”. You can get different answers that would make the poll go in two different directions.
Republicans would think that more people are republican then democratic if they only associate themselves with republicans. If you wanted an unbiased survey of weather there are more republicans or democrats you have to take answers from random people.
Generalizing from a couple of vivid but unrepresentative samples is the same as judging a person without knowing them. It’s not fair to the person or to what you are generalizing .
When using an unrepresented sample it doesn’t matter how large of a group it is, it is still biased and unfair to what you are surveying. You should always use a correctly represented sample when taking a survey.
1,500 people selected at random from all over give an accurate view what a nation thinks in a national survey, just like 1,500 beans give an accurate view how many beans are in the jar.
Naturalistic observation takes information from species in their natural environments unlike case studies or surveys. In a case study a chimpanzee is tested to see if they can pick up on language, but in the naturalistic observation chimpanzees interact with each other and understand one another in their own language. You also get to observe every chimpanzee when all together rather then taking random ones and testing their language comprehending abilities.
Here are three observations done using the naturalistic observation method on humans. 1) Humans are thirty times more likely to laugh in public then they are to laugh when they are alone. Once a person laughs they use seventeen different muscles in our eyes and mouth, and make a series of 75-millisecond vowel sounding sounds that are spaced out one fifth of a second away from each other. 2) Twenty eight percent of students spend thirty seconds every twelve minutes talking to another person, and nine percent spend thirty seconds every twelve minutes at a keyboard on a computer. 3) More developed countries, like Japan, spend life at a faster speed then less economically developed countries. Countries that are in a colder climate travel at faster speeds and are also more likely to die of a heart disease.
At a restaurant one day they asked my dad to fill out a survey online and it asked you if you would eat there the next time you went out to eat. Chances are you wouldn’t go to the same restaurant twice in a row. If they had asked if we would eat there again we would say yes. They get poorer results because of how they word their answers.
A negative correlation would be saying the more time teens spend on facebook the less time they spend studying. Another one would be the less time kids spend brushing their teeth the more cavities will develop. Examples of positive correlation would be the more time you spend studying the higher your test grades will be. Also the more screaming that goes on in a family the more tension their will be in a family.
A negative correlation coefficient is when one thing goes down and the other goes up, and a positive correlation coefficient is when both things go up.
The first cause and effect relationship us that low self-esteem causes depression, the second one is that depression causes low self-esteem, and the third relationship is that distressing events cause depression and low self-esteem.
Arthritis patients believe that the weather can effect the condition of their arthritis but in fact it does nothing to it. Cancer patients think that if they think positive it can cure them but their is no evidence that positive thinking is related to curing any type of diseases.
Random events don’t look random so when they do occur people may misinterpret them as a pattern. In basketball when a player has a high free throw shooting rate people expect them to make it every time but they have a 50/50 chance of making it. They either make the shot or they don’t.
Her chances of winning once were one in seventeen trillion, the same as her winning twice. Something that happens to one in every billion people happens six times a day. What would really be bizarre would be if nothing strange happened one day.
Alan Lucas took new mothers of different age, intelligence levels, and education and had half breast-fed their infants and the other half bottle fed their infants. The breast-fed infants had a slightly higher intelligence as young children.
It was an illusory correlation that the researches had found when the replacement hormone made the risk of heart disease go down. When the National Institutes of Health did their research they found that it made more women unhealthy then healthy to be put on the replacement hormone.
The double-blind procedure was that neither the men taking the pill or the person handing out the pills knew if it was the Viagra or not. 69% of men who did take the Viagra were successful at intercourse compared to the 22% that were not given the drug. The control condition were that some men got the drug while others did not. The independent variable was the drug, while the dependent variable was weather or not the drug worked.
Mode is the number that occurs the most in a sequence. Mean is the average of all the numbers in the sequence, and median is the middle number in the sequence. The mean is effected by extreme scores because if there are a couple of really high or low numbers, they can throw off the mean of the sequence.
Range is the difference between the highest and lowest number in a sequence, and standard deviation is a measure of how many scores vary around the mean.
A represented sample gives your fair information where the people’s opinions were not influenced. In a biased sample you get the results you wanted because it’s been manipulated into giving you the results wanted.
A basketball player with high scores has less reliability because his chances of continuing to make it get slimmer and slimmer while the basketball player with the low scores is more reliable because his chances of making a basket are higher then the player with the high scores already.
During an experiment the more cases you have the more reliable your information becomes because you learn the atypical responses and the typical responses. The less cases you have the more of the chance that you are wrong and got more atypical then typical cases.
The test shows just how likely it is that the result was received by chance as to where the practical significance is that the results where only separated by one or two points showing no real difference between the test scores at all.
The proactive commercials state that they work better then all other leading brands of acne cleanser. They state statistics about how much better proactive works and why it works better to try and sell more of the product making buyers think it’s the best on the market.
In a lab spotting a red dot flashing in a dark room is applied to flying at night, and pushing a button to give someone a shock is like testing to see if they would use violence to another person.
Four things that relate to all humans is that people diagnosed with dyslexia have the same brain malfunction no matter what, all languages have the same basic grammar and people from across the world can communicate with a smile and a frown, loneliness is identified by shyness and low self-esteem and being unmarried, and influences of hunger and taste are the same when people sit down for a meal.
Males and females learn to walk around the same age, and experience the same sensations of light and sound, and feel the the same fear, hunger, and pain. Both females and males have similar intelligence and well-being. We also exhibit the same characteristics expected to of our gender.
Psychologists study animals simply because they are interesting, and they want to learn more about how they think, act, learn, and behave.
In Britain the guidelines are asking if they are putting human needs above animal rights. Only 37% of adults agree that animal testing is acceptable in Britain. The American guidelines are weather the animal is comfortable, healthy, and are having humane treatments done and weather or not they can minimize the infection, pain, or illness or the animal.
As researchers find out more about the abilities of animals the more empathy is for protecting their well-being knowing that they feel like we do. Research on animals have helped both animals and humans.
The four ethical principals are to get the participants consent, protect them from any harm or discomfort, keep participants information confident, and to fully explain the research afterwards.
44. Psychology manipulates people because it influences the way the they think, how they raise their children and other ways of doing things in life. It’s beneficial as well though because it’s meant to influence you in the correct way. If there is a study about child abuse and how it causes psychological effects on the child when they are older hopefully less parents will abuse their children knowing just how much it effects their children and what a danger it is.