Psychology Q&A

Psychology Q&A

Length: 1806 words (5.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Question 1
Psychology is defined as the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of individuals. Before psychology, people did not know why we feel the things we feel or think the things we think. So psychology began with some goals in mind. The first goal is to observe behavior and describe what is happening. This allows for the next goal which is to explain what is happening. It is important to be able to explain how and why behavior happens. It is necessary to find motives or triggers that will cause outcomes. By knowing what causes behaviors to occur we can then predict what will happen in the future. We can then know what to expect and intervene to control the outcome of behavior. Predicting behavior will allow psychologists to better help people by being able to control the outcome of their behavior.
There have been a few pioneers that have paved the road for modern psychology. In Leipzig, Germany, a scientist by the name of Wilhelm Wundt became one of the largest contributors to the development of psychology. Wundt created a laboratory strictly for the study of psychology. Another key player is Edward Titchener who founded the first experimental psychology lab in the United Sates. One of the most important documents written in psychology, The Principles of Psychology, was written by William James. With all of these great minds at work an argument arose. The argument was about the right subjects to study and the correct methods to use while studying them. One side of the argument was structuralism. Structuralism uses the idea that all mental processes could be explained by knowing what the mind is made of. The other side of this argument was functionalism. Functionalism asks not so much what the mind is made of but how and why it operates. Functionalism states that the mind depends on it’s adjustment to the environment and that it will be an ever-changing entity.
In psychology, there are many different perspectives that are employed. The psychodynamic perspective was made famous by Sigmund Freud. Freud exclaimed that behavior motivated by internal forces such as instincts or heredity. The behaviorist perspective declares that behavior is determined from reactions to environmental occurrences. Another perspective is the humanistic perspective which believes that no matter what inheritance or environment provides people are still able to make a choice as to how we behave. The cognitive perspective states that a human is designed to think and imagine.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Psychology Q&A." 16 Aug 2018

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Dual Court System Q&A Essay

- Q1. What is the dual-court system. Why do we have a dual court system. A. The dual-court system is the result of a general a agreement among the nation's founders about the need for individual states to retain significant legislative authority and judicial autonomy separate from federal control. The reason why we have a dual-court system is, back then; new states joining the union were assured of limited federal intervention into local affairs. The state legislatures were free to create laws, and state court systems were needed to hear cases in which violations of those laws occurred....   [tags: Legal Law]

Free Essays
1218 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Business Management Q&A

- Do you feel that culture follows strategy or does strategy follow culture. Strategy is viewed as a social process, albeit a complex one. The nature of an organization and its culture constrains what is possible, predisposing the strategic process to certain channels and certain outcomes. Strategy is about integrating disparate elements of the social web and finding common interests among those elements. It is about conserving what the enterprise already has and using its resources to its best ability....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
602 words (1.7 pages)

Essay about Modern Economics Q&A

- The gas prices as we know today keep rising due to many variables. It seems every year we all wonder why these prices go up for a while and then hit the lowest price per barrel that we have seen in a long time. I have been driving for about 25 years and remember when you could go and get gas for your car or truck for no more than $1.00 per gallon. Today we see the price per gallon change like the weather. During the winter months the barrels are cheaper and the summer they rise, which it return cost more at the pump....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
809 words (2.3 pages)

Essay about Comedy Analysis Q&A

- I have noticed that most comedy pertains to “the times” and the way the world is today. Sometimes there are subtle hints or undertones, and sometimes the statements are direct and to the point. As far as them being savage or gentle, they can be both. It’s according to your perception of the statement. Some people take offense to certain statements if they are identifying with it, while others take it in stride. It has a lot to do with your perception and the way you see things. Some people see the “glass half full, while others see the “glass half empty.” As long as the shoe is on the other foot, it’s funny but when it happens to you that is a different story....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
1432 words (4.1 pages)

Biology Exam Q&A Essay

- Exam Two Question One Question Two The Red-Backed Jumping Spider (Phidippius Johnsoni) is found in Western North America and has been introduced to New Zealand with contaminated imported table grapes. They undergo gradual metamorphosis. They spin tubular nests out of silky thread under fallen logs, rocks and other debris on the ground. They hunt using sight so they are diurnal and mostly stay inside their nests at night. Their nests also provide havens in which molting, egg laying and hatching can take place, and offer protection against the elements....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
1213 words (3.5 pages)

Business Q&A Essay

- Test your knowledge. #2. How does cultural context affect communication. Cultural context affects communication greatly because cultures in one country differ from cultures in another country. There are two kinds of cultural context; high-context culture and low-context culture. “In a high-context culture people rely less on the explicit content of the message and more on the context of the nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning” (Bov`ee pg 11). In a simpler way this means that high-context cultures focus on nonverbal cues and are very affectionate versus low-context cultures focus on verbal cues....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
525 words (1.5 pages)

Essay on Test Q&A

- 1. Identify and describe four reasons for the rise of polity in agrarian societies. To facilitate decision-making To organize collective action To effect military action To resolve conflict and promote a civil society To manage the economic surplus 2. According to Jared Diamond’s argument in “Guns, Germs, and Steel”, where did food production first occur and why did it occur there. The earliest agrarian societies, what everyone calls “civilization” began in the Fertile Crescent because that place offered people a “package” of plants and animals that could be domesticated....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
753 words (2.2 pages)

Essay about Philosophy Q&A

- I believe that many people would state two unique connections between happiness and technology. One connection is that more technology equals more happiness; while the other is less technology equals more happiness. I can see how each side of this position could be logically defended. On one side, technological advances could potentially make us solely dependent on technology, thus establishing some sort of symbiotic relationship where technology and the users of technology depend on each other....   [tags: Q&A]

Research Papers
2443 words (7 pages)

Essay on Is Psychology a Science?

- The British Psychological Society states that ‘Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour’ (BPS). In this essay I will be discussing what is actually meant by this and whether psychology fits into both the traditional views of a science, as well as more contemporary perspectives. It is widely suggested that Psychology is a “coalition of specialities” meaning it is multi-disciplinary (Hewstone, Fincham and Foster 2005, page 4). I will therefore examine whether it could be considered wrong to think that all parts of the discipline should neatly fit into one view of a scientific approach....   [tags: Psychology ]

Research Papers
1124 words (3.2 pages)

Cognitive Psychology Essay

- Cognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. Introduction A scientific branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of cognition is referred to as cognitive psychology....   [tags: Psychology]

Research Papers
1064 words (3 pages)

Therefore, a human can do things outside of the things done in the past. The biological perspective claims that behavior is based on functions of the brain and biological systems. The evolutionary perspective states that natural selection plays part in modern behavior. The last perspective is sociocultural which stresses that behavior is determined based on our cultural differences such as sex, race, religion or ethnic background. A successful psychologist will find a nice blend of all of these perspectives to use in their career.

Question 2
There are two major systems that control all of the activity in our bodies. These systems do everything from regulate our heartbeat to moving our little toe. One of the systems is called the Central Nervous system. The central nervous system, or CNS, is the body’s command station. The CNS is located in the brain and spinal cord. The brain will get all incoming messages from the rest of the body. Once this message is received the brain will then transmit a message back out giving your body orders to take action. So if you were to step outside into the sun and the light is too intense, your brain will receive that message and then relay a message back to your pupils allowing them to constrict. The highway in which all of this information travels is neurons. Neurons are organic transceivers that are located all throughout our body allowing the brain to pass information along. Only the neurons in the brain and spinal cord compose the CNS. The rest of the neurons in the body are components of the peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system, or PNS, is the other major system. The PNS is what communicates with the rest of our body. The PNS neurons start at the spinal column and branch outward to all of our organs and musculoskeletal system. The PNS is further broken down into two subsystems, the autonomic system and the somatic system. The autonomic nervous system is what keeps us alive. It will run basic functions that happen involuntarily like heartbeat, liver function or digestion. The autonomic nervous system is divided even further into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The Sympathetic is the emergency response system for your body. When it is needed it will jump start the body into overdrive. The Sympathetic system will pump our adrenaline, speed up our heart, and shut down all unnecessary functions to maximize energy. This system is connected a special set of neurons that run along the spinal cord known as ganglia. Once the body is no longer on high alert the parasympathetic nervous system will bring the body back to normal. It will continue all of the routine operations of the body. It will handle of the involuntary actions like, digestion, saliva and tear production and liver function. Below is a chart that shows the breakdown of the peripheral nervous system.

Question 3
The human brain is a wondrous and complex structure. It is composed of three sections that all work together simultaneously. First I will talk about the brain stem. The brain stem lies in the innermost section of the brain. This section controls the involuntary life sustaining functions. The medulla is located in the brain stem. The medulla is what controls the beating of the heart, and respiration. Located on top of the medulla is the pons. The pons is a relay section to other sections. Also in the brain stem is the reticular formation. This serves as the brain’s security system. It will alert the brain of anything happening that the brain needs to know. This will work even while we sleep. The nerves of the reticular formation connect to the thalamus. The thalamus works almost like a switchboard for information. It will take incoming sensory perceptions and direct them to the corresponding parts of the cerebral cortex. At the base of the skull lies the cerebellum. The cerebellum controls all of our coordination. This is what allows us to stand up straight and maintain our equilibrium.
The next section of the brain is the Limbic System. The limbic system has three key components. The first is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is how we access memories. Damage to the hippocampus has proven to show inability to access certain memories and also prevents the storage of new ones. Another component is the amygdala. This system controls our emotional states. It is what allows us to experience and recognize emotions. The last component in the Limbic System is hypothalamus. This structure has many roles in the body. It serves as the body’s thermostat. If the body becomes too warm it will signal the body to sweat. It also controls all of the other alarms that tell us we need something. It is what tells us we are hungry or thirsty. It will maintain homeostasis in the body.
The last section of the brain is the Cerebrum. This is by far the largest section of the brain. The cerebral cortex is divided into two large hemispheres the left and right. The two are connected by the corpus callosum which is a dense collection of nerves. Each hemisphere is then further divided into quadrants called lobes. There are tow dividing line. The lateral line is known as the central sulcus and the horizontal is the lateral fissure. In the front of the cerebral hemisphere is the frontal lobe. This is where some of our motor control takes place as well as planning and decision making abilities. Behind the frontal lobe is the parietal lobe. This lobe is our where we process pain, temperature and touch senses. Just behind this lobe is the occipital lobe. This lobe is where we process our sense of sight. The last lobe is the temporal lobe. This lobe is associated with our sense of hearing.

Question 4
The task of measuring psychological behavior is not done easily. There is more than one way to measure it and it is also difficult to prove when measured. Once a scientist has accurately measured his data he has to be sure that it is reliable and valid. The accuracy of data depends on these two elements. For something to be reliable it has to have the same outcome every time. No matter how many times you may perform an experiment it should have the same outcome. Validity has to be obtained by ensuring that the hypothesis tested is indeed true. This means that research involved in the experiment supports the proposed theory. If the findings are not valid that does not mean that they are not reliable. As long as the same results can be obtained every time it will remain reliable.
There are a few ways to measure psychological processes. One way is self-report measures. Self-reporting is a way to measure behavior that may be internal or private. There is no way to truly measure the inner thoughts and feelings of individuals without asking them. There are some things that people only do in private that they may not wish to be observed doing. Self-report measures can come in the form of an interview or a written survey. These forms of questioning will allow a researcher to access this information with having to observe these behaviors. However, this information can be flawed. There is no proof that the subjects answering these questions have been truthful. If the subject knows the desired outcome of the research they may develop a bias in their responses. There is also no way to question someone who is incapable of written or verbal communication such as an infant or a disabled person.
Another form of measurement is by behavioral measures and observation. This means being able to observe behavior of a subject over a certain period of time and log the results. Observation focuses on the relationship of an action and a consequence. A researcher may observe that a student who maintains a healthy diet has a higher GPA than those with a poor diet. There are two types of observation. Direct observation is being able to observe something with clear and easily recognized behavior. The researcher will be directly involved in this type of measuring. Naturalistic observation is when there is no interference from the observer. The observer will simply view and record the subject as it occurs in its natural state.

Return to