Word count: 2030
A study conducted by Díaz Morales and Sánchez López (2008) investigated the relationship between morningness-eveningness and anxiety among adults following findings of previous research suggesting that eveningness correlates positively with anxiety. Arguably the reason for this is because evening types tend to be smokers, have irregular meal times and consume more caffeine and alcohol (Monk, Buysse, Potts, Degrazia & Kupfer, 2004 as cited in Díaz Morales & Sánchez López) which contribute to the increase in stress and therefore anxiety.
The research in the target paper therefore sets out to extend the findings of previous research by looking at whether there were gender differences in the onset of anxiety in morningness-eveningness chronotypes. There were 559 adults aged between 40 and 63 years of age – 41.7% were female and 58.3% were male – from rural cities in Spain; this research was conducted in the winter months. Already it can be noted that there are generalizability issues that affect this research.
Participants were interviewed by trained interviewers using various scales; the first one being the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and the second one being the Reduced Anxiety Scale (ERA). Both of these materials had been previously used in research and therefore demonstrate a high level of internal reliability. The CSM is a 13 question composite measure, each question being a 4 or 5 point scale. From this, the morningness score is obtained by adding the items and ranges from 13-55 - extreme eveningness and extreme morningness respectively (Target Paper). The ERA is a 24 item measure rated on a 5 point scale w...
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... is much more rigorous with the use of a larger sample and wider age ranges making it more representative and thus reliable and valuable.
Buschkens, J., Graham, D., & Cattrell, D., (2010). Well-being under chronic stress: is morningness an advantage? Stress and Health. 26, 330-340.
Díaz Morales, J.F., & Sánchez López, M.P. (2008). Morningness-eveningness and anxiety among adults: a matter of sex/gender? Personality and Individual Differences. 44, 1391-1401
Lemoine, P., Zawieja, P., & Ohayon, M.M., (2013). Associations between morningness/eveningness and psychopathology: an epidemiological survey in three in-patient psychiatric clinics. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 47, 1095-1098
Tonetti, L., Fabbri, M., Martoni, M., & Natale, V., (2012). Circadian type and mood seasonality in adolescents. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 66, 157-159.
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