Psychological Perspectives On The Behaviourist Perspective Essays

Psychological Perspectives On The Behaviourist Perspective Essays

Length: 717 words (2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Psychological Perspectives
Task 1 AC 1.1
The Behaviourist perspective
The behaviourist perspective was a dominant approach in psychology for the first half of the 20th century and has left psychology with some useful techniques.
The main assumption of the behaviourist perspective is that all behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment.
The behaviourist perspective also argues that in order for psychology to be scientific it should focus on observable behaviour which can be objectively measured rather than on things like mental processes which can only be inferred. These can only be inferred as the mental process is something which cannot be measured or observed, so anything that is connected to the brain and isn’t to do with the actual functions can’t be determined.
Two important learning theories proposed by the behaviourist perspective are classical conditioning (Pavlov) and operant conditioning (Skinner). Classical conditioning explains how people learn behaviours through association and operant conditioning explains how the consequences of behaviours shape behaviour.
Classical conditioning is related to learning by association, and refers to the conditioning of reflexes. During Pavlov’s experiment, it was determined that new external stimuli such as sights as sounds, with the original stimuli could be associated with reflexes.
Operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of behavioural responses. Skinner adapted the principles which were investigated by Thorndike, to explain how many aspects of human behaviour are acquired.
There is also a type of learning called social learning which other behaviourists believe is connected to the behaviourist theory. An example of this is in the Bandura et al. S...


... middle of paper ...


...ghly disturbing conflicts, which had to be resolved by the child identifying with the same-sexed parent.
The biological approach
The biological approach (sometimes known as the physiological approach) is the belief that we are the consequence of our biology and nature. This approach focuses on thoughts, feelings and behaviours coming from a biological and physical perspective. Therefore, all that is psychological is first physiological. All thoughts, feeling & behaviour ultimately have a biological cause.
Biologically orientated psychologists commonly use some techniques, more than others, these include laboratory experimentation e.g. stimulation, drug giving or removing parts of the brain to the effect on the study’s behaviour; correlations – e.g. between twins and adoptive family members: and laboratory observations; scanning of the brain activity and structure.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Psychological Perspectives Of Psychology And Psychology Essay

- The field of psychology has opened different hypothesis from a variety of theories with the aim of studying the behaviour of humans being as a result they concluded with five psychological perspectives. Behaviourist, Biological, Psychodynamic, Cognitive and Humanistic perspectives are the deduction after a depth study of mental activity associate to human behaviour. In this essay I will be comparing two psychological perspectives according to aggressive behaviour. The Behaviourist and Psychodynamic perspective are based on experiences during childhood....   [tags: Sigmund Freud, Psychology, Behaviorism]

Better Essays
872 words (2.5 pages)

Behaviourist and Biological Approach to Typical Behavior Essay

- In this essay, we have been asked to evaluate two psychological perspectives’ in relation to “typical behaviour”. The perspectives I have chosen is the behaviourist and biological approach, to be able analyse these approaches, I have decide to use the case study of the death of the two year old ‘James Bulger’ and with this, the relevant therapy’s used by each perspective. Psychology comprises of two words originally used by the ‘Greeks’, ‘psyche’, defining the mind, soul or spirit and lastly ‘logos’ being study....   [tags: Environment, Positive Reinforcement]

Better Essays
1414 words (4 pages)

Essay about A Comparison of Psychological Perspectives

- A Comparison of Psychological Perspectives Two of the most fundamental psychological perspectives are the psychoanalytic, and the behaviourist. The father of the psychoanalytic approach was Sigmund Freud who believed that the mind was mostly within the subconscious; "The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one seventh of its bulk above water." he divided the unconscious into three primary sections: The id has no consideration, and only thinks of the most basic needs; such as hunger and comfort....   [tags: Papers]

Better Essays
1265 words (3.6 pages)

Psychological Perspective Assignment Essay

- Psychological perspectives assignment The word psychology comes from the Greek word ‘psyche’ meaning mind, body and spirit. The earliest known ideas in psychology also came from ancient Greece. Thales of Miletus (624-546BC) says the brain plays a vital role. This wasn’t always said, as for a long time the brain was thought to be a big snot gland. Pluto (427-347BC) was said to have debated and believed we are all born knowing everything we know, all our behaviours and knowledge we have when we are born....   [tags: study of the mind, ancient Greece]

Better Essays
1163 words (3.3 pages)

The Nature Nurture Issue And Psychological Perspectives Essay

- The Nature-Nurture Issue and Psychological Perspectives Nature vs. Nurture In the book “Psychology of Everyday Life” we are told the definition of nature/nurture issue. It is the age old controversy over the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture (Myers 7). It is a debate on whether behavior is genetic or learned. I believe behavior can be learned more so than being genetic. If you are raised in a bad environment it can have so many negative effects....   [tags: Psychology, Behaviorism, Sigmund Freud]

Better Essays
702 words (2 pages)

Psychological Perspectives of Human Growth and Development Essay

- Psychological Perspectives of Human Growth and Development The following will analyse the Psychodynamic theory founded by Sigmund Freud. It will focus on the components of the ‘mind’ including the Conscious, the pre-conscious proper and the Unconscious. Examining his structure of Personality with reference to The’ Id’, ‘Ego’ and ‘Super-ego’. It will discuss Freud’s proposal of stages within his ‘psychosexual development’. It will then focus on Carl Rogers Humanistic theory, explaining his concept of the ‘Actualizing tendency’ and incorporating his creations of ‘Self concept’, the ‘Organismic self’ and the ‘Ideal self’....   [tags: Psychology Freud]

Better Essays
1942 words (5.5 pages)

Psychological And Biological Perspectives On Stress Essay

- Stress, an integral part of life, is unavoidable and plays a key role in influencing happiness, productivity and health. Although stress is usually associated with a negative connotation, it is not always necessarily harmful. We generally use the word “stress,” to describe an emotional state or negative condition when we seem to be overloaded with pressure. The majority of people today have experienced stress at some point of their lives. Today, one can hardly pick up a newspaper or magazine, and watch TV without seeing or hearing some reference to stress....   [tags: Anxiety, Psychology, Fight-or-flight response]

Better Essays
1812 words (5.2 pages)

Essay about Different Kinds of Psychological Perspectives

- There are many different kinds of psychological perspectives such has the Socio-cultural and Psychoanalytic approach. Looking at these topics within Psychology, it is understood that Psychology is about human behaviour and the environmental factors that influence this behaviour. To understand the case study of Tumi, the perspectives mentioned above will be applied with the aid of psychological knowledge to explain her unfounded experiences. The interpretation of human behaviour varies and so came about different perspectives or aspects of Psychology, one of them being the Psychoanalytic approach discovered by Sigmund Freud in 1917 (Santrock, 2003)....   [tags: anxiety, psychoanalysis, human behaviour]

Better Essays
953 words (2.7 pages)

Psychological Perspectives On Prejudice By Vincent N. Parillo Essay

- In the insightful article “causes of prejudice” written by Vincent N. Parillo, the author begins the intuitive argument with a three paragraph introduction explaining to the reader, briefly, about the social and psychological sides of prejudice. “Negative attitudes can lead to turbulent social relations between dominant minority groups.” (pg. 504) “Psychological perspectives on prejudice-whether behaviorists, cognitive, or psychoanalytic-focus on the subjective states of mind of individuals.”(pg.504) which help the author, not only introduce these topics to the reader, but also aids the reader in understanding the author’s reasoning for writing this article....   [tags: Minority group, Sociology, Psychology, Prejudice]

Better Essays
729 words (2.1 pages)

Universities Are Shifting Learning Away From The Traditional Behaviourist Perspective

- Universities are shifting learning away from the traditional behaviourist perspective where students are passive rote-learners (partly due to teacher-centred teaching) to a modern constructivist paradigm where students are actively involved in their learning (Neo, 2005). Explicitly, students learn through learning activities designed by their lecturers and they construct knowledge via experiences gained in the activities. This is in line with Kolb, Rubin, and McIntyre (1984) who argued that “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”....   [tags: Learning, Skill, Knowledge, Training]

Better Essays
1263 words (3.6 pages)