Proximity Voting And Its Effect On The Party 's Policy Preferences And Their Personal Preferences

Proximity Voting And Its Effect On The Party 's Policy Preferences And Their Personal Preferences

Length: 1005 words (2.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Down’s (1957) proximity voting model highlights that voters evaluate a party based on a distance or proximity between the party’s proposed policy platform and their personal preferences. The closer a party’s position to the voter’s policy preferences, the higher is the voter’s utility from voting for this party. Under this model, it is assumed that rational voters choose parties that represent their policy preferences best. This assumption is rational for several reasons. First, all parties value electoral benefits at least to a certain extent. Second, a high vote share is necessary to enter parliament and typically the higher a party’s vote share, the higher is its bargaining power in parliament, its chances of forming government and implementing its preferred policies. Lastly, it’s parsimonious to focus on vote-seeking incentives rather than policy-seeking behavior. Furthermore, as Sartori (1976) noted “that models should be tested primarily by the accuracy of their predictions rather than by the reality of their assumptions” (Sartori 312).
Following the logic outlined above, we would expect parties to move to the center of the policy space because electorally rewarding positions are located at the center of policy space. This is true for the mainstream parties because they are mostly on the center right or center left of the political spectrum. However, the emergence of niche parties across the Western Europe have complicated the understanding of the party competition (implications for spatial model). Meguid (2005) concluded that “competition is not restricted to interaction between ideological neighbors, as the standard spatial theory claims; non-proximal parties play a critical role in the success and failure of Western Euro...

... middle of paper ... importance of issues than on substantive policies. The method therefore only reports the salience of an issue and not its substance. In other words, this method is open to criticism because it does not differentiate positive from negative references to an issue. Moreover, as Selb and Pituctin (2010) noted, models of party formation and success suffer from biased inferences because “multi –period data are simultaneously structured in space and time” (Selb and Pituctin 148).
In short, there needs to be a unified definition of niche party concept that include disparate parties such as Communist, Green and Ethno/Regional parties. Furthermore, there should be a continuous measurement of niche party concept rather than measurement based on family membership like previous studies. If this is done properly, it will greatly enhance our understanding of party competition.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Voting System And Its Effect On The Government System Essay

- Voting is an integral part of electing leaders in government, without it, the subjects of the government would, in all likelihood, cause public unrest. It is for the reason of preventing said unrest that an effective voting system be put in place in a given government to prioritize the needs of the people. A preferential voting system would be an effective way to elect leaders in Canada due to the facts that it creates a majority government, promotes a strong two-party system, and creates a large pool of votes....   [tags: Elections, Election, Plurality voting system]

Better Essays
1180 words (3.4 pages)

The Issue Of Voting And Voting Essay

- INTRODUCION: It has long been suspected that the order in which candidates’ names are placed on a ballot somehow influences the decision-making process of voters. Theories of ballot position have suggested, variously, that candidates benefit from being placed first on the ballot, due to a ‘primacy effect,’ or last on the ballot, due to a ‘recency effect’. However, the evidences provided were sometimes incomplete or contradictory. With regards to positioning of names, the twist in the British context is that with multimember ward elections under first past the post in many parts of the country, the impact isn’t just on choice between parties (Party A candidate at top of the ballot paper does...   [tags: Elections, Voting, Election, Voting system]

Better Essays
1558 words (4.5 pages)

Essay on Electoral System On Voter Preferences

- Election procedures are a defining feature of democracies. They also determine how decisions are made in smaller groups, from parliaments to board committees. Designing a voting system that produces the best possible outcomes given voter preferences and information is thus essential. Unfortunately, this proves to be an extremely challenging task. This is especially true in elections involving more than two alternatives (e.g. candidates or parties). And most real-life elections involve many alternatives....   [tags: Voting system, Plurality voting system, Voting]

Better Essays
988 words (2.8 pages)

The Calculus Of Voting And Voting System Essay

- The article “The Calculus of Voting in Compulsory Voting Systems” by Costas Panagopoulos that appeared in the Political Behavior talks about how Compulsory voting laws have consistently been demonstrated to boost electoral participation. The article is rather expository than analytical or descriptive, and mostly uses data from external sources and research. The first part of the article mainly focuses on the cost of voting: Rational choice theories of electoral turnout assume that voters, like consumers, are rational and self-interested....   [tags: Election, Voter turnout, Elections, Voting]

Better Essays
733 words (2.1 pages)

Voting For The Youth Of Voting Essay

- When a person turns 18, they are considered a young adult: a student as well as a member of the next generation. Being that this is true, it is essential for young people to remember to register and practice their right to vote. Although the process of voting can be seen as complicated to new voters, this should not keep the youth from voting. It is important to address the lack of youth voters because we as youth are the future generation and should have representation when it comes to laws that affect them....   [tags: Election, Elections, Voter turnout, Voting]

Better Essays
979 words (2.8 pages)

Voting Mandatory Voting For Voting Essay

- Politics Issue #2 There is choices that every United States Citizen has to make when it comes to voting. The first is whether to use their right to vote. The second is whether to use their right not to vote. The third is whether to use money to help their cause. Voting As citizens we have, one of the biggest rights there is the right to vote. We gain this right at age eighteen. This is really our civic duty also. This gives us a say in how we live are life. By voting, you are helping make what comes of this country....   [tags: Elections, Election, Voting, Democracy]

Better Essays
734 words (2.1 pages)

Weasol Words That Effect Consumers' Preferences Essays

- In the past, while consumers were contented with soft soap and olive soap for personal care and house works, thanks to the marketers and advertisements, today we are believed to their ineffectiveness and we are obsessed with hygiene. In the course of time, consumption of these items has become a common culture, an understanding and an obsession as well. We have started to purchase these products only because of their tempting package designs regardless of their harmful effects on our health and environment....   [tags: advertisement, unclear allegations, marketing]

Better Essays
1708 words (4.9 pages)

Essay on The Voting Wars By Richard Hasen

- In his book, The Voting Wars, Richard Hasen argues that parties involved in election reform issues generally fall into one of two groups: one focused on removing any potential fraudulent votes, and the other focused on expanding voter access so as to not exclude any potential votes. Hasen works to show that most election litigation stems from this dichotomy. With the former camp is usually occupied by conservatives and the latter by progressives (though it really depends on who is winning), Hasen seems to think that the problem is this partisanship in general, and even though statistically he seems to place more blame on Republicans since 2000, Democrats are not spared his accusations....   [tags: Elections, Election, Voting, Voting system]

Better Essays
1499 words (4.3 pages)

Voting And Voting Essay

- Democracy is the ablity to have a voice in government , however not a direct voice.This indirect voice is best represented through the leaders that ones sees best fit.So how do americans get their voice across. The answer is simple , and that is through voting and political particapation.The right to vote was a long haul, in the 1800s only landowning white males where allowed to vote.Over time with the demand for change, blacks were allowed to vote and slowy but surely women were allow to vote.Currently in the United States of America in order vote you must be 18 years or older and a U.S citizen.This essay will explore the prilvage of voting, why voters tend to vote and why not and if voti...   [tags: Election, Voter turnout, Voting, Democracy]

Better Essays
1143 words (3.3 pages)

Proximity and Juxtaposition Essay

- Proximity and Juxtaposition In order to properly compare and contrast the similarities between juxtaposition and proximity a definition is surely needed of the two. Proximity for instance, refers to the relative nearness of forms, and how that effects the relationship between them. Juxtaposition on the other hand, refers to the way in which elements or forms are placed next to each other. Juxtaposition and proximity are two important aspects of design that are often used together and must be taken into account when creating a work of art....   [tags: Essays Papers]

Free Essays
771 words (2.2 pages)