2.2. Entrapment of Pt/C in epichlorohydrin-crosslinked chitosan
An adaptation of the previously published procedure  was used. The 1 wt% chitosan solution in acetic acid was mixed with 1 g of dried Pt/C using pulsed ultrasonication (Cole–Parmer 500 W ultrasonic processor) for 10 min. Epichlorohydrin (0, 4, 7, and 12 g) was added to different batches of the dispersion. The mixture was sonicated for 10 min, followed by being heated under reflux at 50 °C for 1 h. Then, a 0.1 mol L−1 NaOH solution was added and the mixture was boiled for 1 h. The solid product was recovered by filtration and neutralized by washing with deionized water, HCl, and NaOH aqueous solutions. The neutralized solids were vacuum dried at 80 °C. The Pt/C treated with different amounts of the crosslinker is denoted by Pt/C−x−Chi, where x is the weight of epichlorohydrin initially added.
2.3. Fabrication of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and performance measurement
The procedure used here followed literature [14, 15]. The ink solution for the anode electrode consisted of isopropanol, deionized water, Nafion solution, and the unmodified Pt/C in an amount that ...
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...ochemistry: application to fuel cells, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, USA, 2004.
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