Protein Synthesis And Gene Expression Essay

Protein Synthesis And Gene Expression Essay

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Protein synthesis is involved in gene expression. Gene expression is the process of DNA that controls protein synthesis. Genes code for certain proteins that are created by DNA transcription and translation (Reece, et al. 334). This happens by using an mRNA template to specify the order of amino acids. Protein synthesis starts on the free ribosomes within the cytosol. The signal sequence that initiates the process is located at the N-terminal end of the polypeptide chain. Different codons along the mRNA are translated into amino acids as a ribosome moves along it. Then, tRNAs act as adapters to control the movement of amino acids to the ribosome. This occurs through the base pairings of the codons of the mRNA and and anti-codon of the tRNA. The ribosome then forms the peptide bonds between the amino acids of the polypeptide chain (Erster Lect. 21). Creation of the polypeptide chain can be divided into three stages of initiation, elongation, and termination. Each stage requires the aid of protein factors. For certain parts initiation and elongation, energy may also be needed. This energy is provided by GTP (Reece, et al. 348).
Choice A. This answer is incorrect. Initiation is a stage in translations that requires energy. During the initiation stage, a mRNA, a tRNA carrying the first amino acid of a polypeptide chain, and a ribosome’s two subunits are brought together. A small ribosome subunit is binded to mRNA and a tRNA initiation. The initiation complex is completed with the appearance of a large ribosome subunit. Initiation factors are proteins that are needed to combine each of the translation components together. The energy required for this comes from the hydrolysis of GTP (Reece, et al. 348).
Choice B. This answer is incorre...

... middle of paper ...

... To enforce cell cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus, nutrient was limited by limiting the accumulation of DnaA. DnaA is a replication initiator protein that is degraded when low in nutrient availability. However, it was found that limiting nutrients did not change its rate of degradation. Rather, it downregulates DnaA translation instead (Leslie, et al. 1). The results show that regulating translation can provide for a way to control the concentration of important regulatory proteins as a reaction to environmental resources.
Vincent brings up a similar study about how translation is important and its effect on living organisms by analyzing bacteria. Inhibiting translation of E. coli with the use of antibiotics shows that the bacteria cannot thrive. This can benefit humans by finding a way to prevent bacterial infections by looking into different factors to do so.

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