Animal testing has gone back as far as three hundred B.C.E with the Greek physician and philosopher, Aristotle (*). Then there was Galen, a Greek physician, who studied animals in Rome and learned more about medicine, made advancements in understanding anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. To modern society, Galen is referred to as being the father of vivisection. In the twelfth century in Spain, Ibn Zuhr, an Arab physician who made use of animal experimentation that led to testing the effectiveness of surgical procedures, first on animals, and then applying the information to human patients. Though most of his testings were on goats, much of his research went into postmortem autopsies and dissections. (Hajar) (Naik)
In modern times, the experimentation on animals has led to just as many advances in medical science as there are in veterinary science and practice. Ibn Zuhr paved the way for basic surgical procedures that advanced over time as the anatomy of humans and animals were not seen as being one and the same. Blood transfusions came about through ...
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.... 2014. Academic OneFile. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
Naik, Abhijit. “History of Animal Testing”. Buzzle. 8 March 2011. 10 March 2014. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-of-animal-testing.html
Travis, John. "Pig cells used for Parkinson's disease." Science News. 7 Oct. 1995: 230. Academic OneFile. Web. 26 Feb. 2014
U.S. Researchers Defend Animal Testing・. Discovery. Feb 21, 2011. 28 February 2014. http://news.discovery.com/animals/animal-research-medical-defended-110221.htm
Veterinary Benefits・. Speakingofresearch. 2014. 28 February 2014. http://speakingofresearch.com/facts/veterinary-benefits/
Wolff, Jonathan. "Pro and Con Positions Oversimplify Animal Experimentation Issues."Animal Experimentation. Ed. Ronnie D. Lankford, Jr. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. At Issue. Rpt. from "Killing Softly." Guardian. 28 Mar. 2006. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
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