Cloning is a process in which genetically identical copies of biological matter are created through nonsexual means. Clones are made up of organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every piece of their DNA is identical. Cells, genes, tissues and entire organisms can be created through cloning. Aside from cloning being done in a lab, clones do happen naturally. Identical twins are just one natural example of cloning. Cloning has been used for many years. The earliest examples of cloning have been associated with plants. The simple act of cutting a plant and growing a new one from the original is an act of cloning. In the early 1950's scientists successfully cloned a tadpole (Zabel 4).
To the average person the term cloning seems cut and dry as if there could only be one type. When in reality, to date there are three major types of cloning currently being tested, and experimented with. The first type of cloning known as molecular cloning concentrates on making identical copies of DNA molecules. This type of cloning is also known as gene cloning, and/or Recombinant DNA technology. The second type of cloning is called organism cloning, also known as reproductive cloning. Organism or reproductive cloning involves making an identical copy of an entire organism. This is the type of cloning that was successfully used in 1996 creating "Dolly the sheep." Lastly the third type is referred to as therapeutic cloning. Therapeutic cloning is by far the most controversial type of cloning, as it involves the cloning of human embryos for the production of stem cells (Zabel 1). The controversy here circles around the fact that; a. Human embryos are actually being used for such purposes, and b. the fact that these embryos are e...
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Mueller, Tom. "Cloned Species." — National Geographic Magazine. N.p., May 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.
Naik, Gautam. "Experiment Brings Human Cloning One Step Closer." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 15 May 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2014.
Nelson, Lawrence, and Barbara Mackinnon. "Ethics of Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research." Ethics of Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.
Tierney, John. "Are Scientists Playing God? It Depends on Your Religion." The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 Nov. 2007. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.
Wickman, Gary. "Potential Dangers of Human Cloning." Potential Dangers of Human Cloning. Health Guidance, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014
Zabel, Gary. "Cloning Fact Sheet." Doegenomes.org. Human Genome Project Information, 2007. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
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