Amendment XVI was passed by Congress on 2 July 1909 and was ratified on 3 February 1913 (Constitution). ...
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...eaty of Versailles. Roosevelt and the Republicans strongly dismissed Wilson’s naïve idealism and the Senate rejected any defensive alliance with Great Britain and France. Henry Cabot Lodge, a republican, who Wilson and himself had mutual dislike for each other, called the treaty “a scheme of making mankind suddenly virtuous by a statue or a written constitution” (Tindall and Shi 781). Wilson made one last effort to save the treaty by going out on a ten-thousand mile journey to communicate the value of the treaty to the American public. This came to a halt after he suffered a severe stroke which left him paralyzed on his left side. The ratification of the Treaty of Versailles had almost killed Wilson and after the treaty was compromised by Senator Lodge, the irreconcilable’s differences between the two sides denied the ratification in a vote of 38 for and 53 against.
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