The Processes Of Energy Capture And Metabolism For Living Organisms Essay

The Processes Of Energy Capture And Metabolism For Living Organisms Essay

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5. Describe the processes of energy capture and metabolism for living organisms and how they relate to one another. Be sure to address photosynthesis, glycolysis, fermentation, and respiration.

Photosynthesis is one process of energy capture for living organisms. The formula for photosynthesis is 3CO2 + 6H2O + light  C3H6O3 + 3O2 + 3H2O. Basically, during this process, light energy is captured and converted into chemical energy, but it goes much deeper than that. First, light is captured by chloroplasts that contain pigments that capture different photons of light and then reflect different colors. The pigments include: chlorophyll, which absorbs blue and red wavelengths but reflect green; phycobilins, which absorbs blue, green, and yellow, but reflect red; and carotenoids, which absorb blue wavelengths, and reflect orange or yellow. Photosynthesis also occurs in two phases: light reactions, or light dependent (photosystems), or Carbon-Fixation Reactions, or light independent reaction (Calvin Cycle). Light reactions are light dependent because the reaction itself depends on photons to excite an electron which initiates the reaction. These light gathering processes include photosystems I and II which serve different purposes. Photosystem II (P680) occurs first during the process and this is the site of O2 production. Photosystem II powers Photosystem I (P700) which produces NADPH. Normally, Photosystem II passes its electrons to Photosystem I to power it. After the power has been passed on and the level of NADPH is high, cyclic electron flow comes in to cycle the electrons within PSI and produces ATP which is then used as energy needed by the organism. The Calvin Cycle is an example of a light independent reaction and it occurs ...

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...TP from ADP+P. Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor of this process. This process produces the most abundant amount of ATP; about 34.
Each of these three processes are connected to one another in some way. First, the energy must be converted during photosynthesis so that the correct nutrients are being passed on to glycolysis. Then pyruvate is produced during glycolysis so that aerobic respiration can take place and produce an abundant amount of energy for the entire organism. Throughout all of the processes, the maximum ATP yield for animals is 38 and plants are 36. This involves energy produced during all processes. So in order for a human to have enough energy to function every day, these processes must take place to produce energy. Specific enzymes are used throughout these processes to help them along, and this provides correct function of the system.

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