The Process of Antibiotics Acting Against Bacteria Essay

The Process of Antibiotics Acting Against Bacteria Essay

Length: 854 words (2.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

AIM: The final goal for performing this project is to find out the crystal structure, active binding sites and functional analysis of the domains present in the HldE protein. By finding these important factors of the protein, and making the changes in active sites can result in altering the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer formation in bacteria. This helps antibiotics to act more prominently towards the specific kind of problems occur in those bacterial kinds.
To achieve this, we need to perform the sequential comparison of the protein with other structurally existing proteins. Along with this, we need to purify the protein without any tags for forming crystals.

INTRODUCTION:
Now a days, the main problem in resolving the pathological issues is to pass the antibiotic through highly secured cell wall of the organism. The very important and the best example for this are the gram negative bacteria which has slight changes when compared to gram positive bacteria. These bacterial genes are obtaining high resistance towards the antibiotics due to the presence of an extra layer ‘Lipopolysaccharide’ (LPS) in the outer membrane(Erridge, Bennett-Guerrero et al. 2002). The inner membrane of the cell is composed of phospholipids whereas the outer layer composed with different lipids called Lipopolysaccharide’s. This LPS also known as Endotoxins(Wang and Quinn 2010) which has hydrophobic component Lipid A, and hydrophilic polysaccharides which are divided in to inner core, outer core and o antigen repeat sites(Wang and Quinn 2010). All these sites are composed of different components such as Kdo, Heptose, Galactose, Glucose and PPEtn’s. The contribution of these different compounds is shown in fig 1. Due to the presence of the extensive out...


... middle of paper ...


...ahne and S. Walker (2010). "The bacterial cell envelope." Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2(5): a000414.
Sperandeo, P., G. Dehò and A. Polissi (2009). "The lipopolysaccharide transport system of Gram-negative bacteria." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1791(7): 594-602.
Valvano, M. A., C. L. Marolda, M. Bittner, M. Glaskin-Clay, T. L. Simon and J. D. Klena (2000). "The rfaE gene from Escherichia coli encodes a bifunctional protein involved in biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core precursor ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose." J Bacteriol 182(2): 488-497.
Wang, X. and P. J. Quinn (2010). "Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria." Subcell Biochem 53: 3-25.
Wang, X. and P. J. Quinn (2010). "Lipopolysaccharide: Biosynthetic pathway and structure modification." Progress in Lipid Research 49(2): 97-107.



Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on How Useful are Your Antibiotics?

- The modern antibiotic era, in which the medical field currently resides, has been a life changing time for the world’s population; creating an invisible guard for humanity against microbial assailants. Less than a century ago, 1928 to be exact, many of society’s everyday cures were non-existent and simple infections could kill. Then Alexander Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin and the refinement of it by Ernst Chain and Howard Florey in 1939 changed medicine and the “golden age of antibiotics” was born (Todor)....   [tags: modern antibiotics, microbial assailants]

Better Essays
679 words (1.9 pages)

Why Are Antibiotics Resistance Antibiotics? Essay example

- Antibiotics Resistance Antibiotics have been the marvel medications of present day solution and the pillar of our safeguard against bacterial diseases. However, now microorganisms are fighting back and creating imperviousness to antibiotics at a disturbing pace. Some microorganisms are currently so safe that they are for all intents and purposes untreatable with any of the present accessible medications. In the event that we don 't make a move to address this danger, humanity will be on the verge of a post-anti-microbial period, where untreatable also, lethal infections get to be progressively normal....   [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Microorganism]

Better Essays
1161 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Bacteria Are Single Celled Organisms

- When one thinks of bacteria, what comes to mind. Bacteria are single celled organisms whose main objective in life is to gather nutrient and reproduce asexually. They just grow and divide. Humans have very interesting interactions with bacteria. In our bodies we have one trillion cells that make us who we are. Outside and inside our bodies, we have 10 trillion bacterial cells that help us (dietary functions like making vitamins, creating a barrier against foreign/bad bacteria, helping our immune system, etc.)....   [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Microorganism]

Better Essays
828 words (2.4 pages)

Types Of Antibiotics For Bacterial Infections Essay

- Antibiotics are widely used across the population to treat bacterial infections. The ability for these antibiotics to induce bacterial cells is fixed on the cellular function inhibited by a specific drug-target interaction (1). Antibiotics are classified in many ways. One way to classify types of antibiotics is whether they have the ability to induce the cell death – bactericidal drugs – or inhibit cell growth – bacteriostatic drugs (1). Another method of classifying antibiotic is the mechanisms of action they undergo....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, Gene, Antibiotic resistance]

Better Essays
710 words (2 pages)

Antibiotics For The Treatment And Prevention Of Bacterial Infections Essay

- Antibiotics are a class of drugs used for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections in humans and animals. These antimicrobial drugs perform their function by either killing pathogens or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic cells. Discovered in the 1920s by Scottish Biologist, Alexander Fleming, antibiotics were first considered “miracle” drugs—they were the first “go-to” option when it came to treating infections in patients; and in fact, they still are. The first antibiotic discovered by Sir Fleming was penicillin [from the fungus Penicillin notatum] and it was used to treat infections such as syphilis, gangrene, and tuberculosis....   [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Penicillin, Gene]

Better Essays
830 words (2.4 pages)

Essay on Bacteri Bacteria, Yeast, And Their Eukaryotic Cells

- "Plasmids" Bacteria, yeast, and some higher eukaryotic cells contain molecules know as plasmids. "Plasmids are circular, double stranded, DNA molecules that are separate from a cell 's chromosomal DNA. " They have the ability to replicate themselves separately within the host cell. Some bacterial cells may contain hundreds of plasmid molecules that have replicated. Plasmids display either a parasitic or symbiotic relationship towards the host cell. An example of a symbiotic relationship is that a drug-resistant plasmid can help the bacterial host cell to survive against antibiotics....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, Gene, Plasmid]

Better Essays
848 words (2.4 pages)

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

- Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria “Antibiotics" is the name given to the group of chemicals, particularly in medicine, that stop or inhibit the growth of, microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and parasites, or that kill the microorganism. They are, however, completely ineffective against viruses. There are two kinds of antibiotics, namely; bactericides, which interfere with the cell wall or contents of the bacteria, thereby killing it, and bacteriostatics, which prevent the bacteria from reproducing....   [tags: Antibiotics, Chemicals, Medicine]

Better Essays
1122 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Symptoms And Treatments Of Antibiotics

- Today’s people are so used to the idea that any antibiotics can cure just about any infections. And truly, the development of antibiotics is well thought out among the most important rise of modern science and antibiotics has saved millions of lives. However, antibiotic is becoming a rising threat to the human health and is happening worldwide. What is antibiotics. — a chemical produced by fungi and bacteria, that inhibits with the biochemistry of bacterium fungi. Antibiotics many would say is a miracle drug, helping people to extend their life spans by altering the result of the bacterial infection....   [tags: Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, Penicillin]

Better Essays
976 words (2.8 pages)

Essay about Antibiotics

- Antibiotics have played a major role in our society thanks to Sir Alexander Fleming's careful observations in 1928. Without it, many lives would be in danger due to infectious diseases. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by various species of microorganisms and other living systems that are capable in small concentrations of inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria and other microorganisms. These organisms can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or animals called protozoa. A particular group of these agents is made up of drugs called antibiotics, from the Greek word anti ("against") and bios ("life")....   [tags: Health Medicine Medical Essays]

Better Essays
1659 words (4.7 pages)

Essay on Bacteria

- Bacteria Bacteria are the most common and ancient microorganisms on earth. Most bacteria are microscopic, measuring 1 micron in length. However, colonies of bacteria grown in a laboratory petri dish can be seen with the unaided eye. There are many divisions and classifications of bacteria that assist in identifying them. The first two types of bacteria are archaebacteria and eubacteria. Both groups have common ancestors dating to more than 3 billion years ago. Archaebacteria live in environments where, because of the high temperature, no other life can grow....   [tags: Science Chemistry Biology Experiment Essays]

Free Essays
1313 words (3.8 pages)