Eyewitness testimony is “the provision of formal evidence on the basis of events experienced by the party” (Towl). History has shown that eyewitness identifications can often be unreliable. Since as far back as biblical times, people have questioned the validity of witnesses. The issue is even addressed in the US Constitution, which states that “two witnesses to the same overt act” are needed for a conviction of treason. Scientists have been disputing the credibility of eyewitness testimony, with experiments dating back to the early 20th century. In 1908, Harvard professor Hugo Münsterberg warned against dangero...
... middle of paper ...
... all they can to reduce the risk of misidentifications. Misidentifications not only damage innocent lives, but also hinder investigations. While police are focusing on the wrong person, the real perpetrator has gotten away.
"The Innocence Project." The Innocence Project. Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
Jost, Kenneth. Eyewitness Testimony: Could New Safeguards Prevent Misidentifications? Washington, D.C.: CQ, 2011. 861-73. CQ Researcher. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
Spielberger, Charles Donald. "Eyewitness Identification." Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. Oxford: Elsevier Academic, 2004. N. pag. Credo Reference. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
Towl, Graham J. "Eyewitness Testimony." Dictionary of Forensic Psychology. Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan, 2008. N. pag. Credo Reference. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Problem 1: Racial Bullying Due to numerous reports of Racial Bullying in schools, the Racial Bullying Prevention Group UK has sought advice on how to tackle racial school bullying. They have asked to suggest, based on sound social psychological principles and research, what initiatives could be implemented to tackle bullying occurring in schools based on ethnic orientation. Farrington (1993) described bullying as “physical, verbal or psychological attack or intimidation that is intended to cause fear, distress or harm to the victim.” Therefore, for it to be racial bullying, it must have the elements of Farrington’s definition with the added elements of deliberately targeting an individual’s... [tags: Bullying, RCT, EWT]
1403 words (4 pages)
- Child Eyewitness Testimony and Its Implications in the Courtroom In the last forty years, there has been a shift in courtroom proceedings. Lawyers are not only focusing their evidence on the scientific aspects of an event, but also on those who may have witnessed the actual event as well. Recently, the number of eyewitness appearances in the courtroom has increased, making statements about either a crime or an event that occurred in their presence. But how does the courtroom decide who is a legitimate witness to an event.... [tags: Papers]
825 words (2.4 pages)
- Eyewitness testimonies are a well-known evidence around the world to seek out people. It has been used in numerous cases and many people have been convicted with eyewitnesses alone. The problem is that such testimonies alone can be very inaccurate and lead to wrongful convictions. Our memory and our ability to remember is very corruptive by many factors. Some factors can be emotions, event, personal experience, stress level, and the will to help. In this assignment I will discuss what I learned about the questioning that happens during an interview, and how it impacts the response a witness may give.When we learn something new we store that information so that we won’t forget it.... [tags: Interview, Question, Semi-structured interview]
805 words (2.3 pages)
- Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus’ main focus in the 1975 journal article, “Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report”, was on the influence of leading/misleading information in terms of both visual imagery and wording of questions in relation to eyewitness testimony. The problem that she investigated was that the questions asked about an event shortly after it occurs may distort the witness’ memory for that event. The research hypothesis was that the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later and when the initial question contains either true or false presuppositions, the likelihood is increased that subjects will later... [tags: Psychology, Memory, Cognition]
817 words (2.3 pages)
- On May 17, 1982, in Shreveport, Louisiana, Calvin Willis was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole for a crime he did not commit. He was convicted of brutally beating and raping a child based on three eyewitness identifications of him at trial. The case against him was substantively weak: there was no physical evidence linking him to the crime, circumstantial evidence indicated that the intruder was not him, and his pregnant wife testified at trial that he was home with her at the time.... [tags: Court, Jury, Witness, Eyewitness identification]
702 words (2 pages)
- In an everyday scene, telling a story to a friend that might not be accurate when explaining all the details of a specific scene would not have repercussions. On the contrary, in the criminal justice system, an eyewitness person has a crucial role in describing the exact details of the suspect in a criminal case. In the movie “What Jennifer Saw” the police officers, the defendant’s criminal record, the eyewitness’s high level of memory confidence, emotions and constant alibis, contributed to the wrongful sentencing of Ronald Cotton for 11 years.... [tags: Police, Criminal law, Criminal justice, Crime]
1935 words (5.5 pages)
- While first-hand accounts of terrible times are necessary in order to understand the horrors of the experience, it is often hard to get those who experienced it to come forward and give their story. This problem holds especially true for Holocaust survivors and their testimony. When the survivors do come forward it can be even more difficult to ensure that the account is both accurate and effective in telling the story. Luckily, there are those like Charlotte Delbo whose Holocaust account Auschwitz and After is able to use unique story telling strategies in order to create a compelling and clear testimony.... [tags: Emotion, Narrative, Testimony, The Reader]
1122 words (3.2 pages)
- Stakeholders In any wrongful conviction, there would be some groups and parties received major impacts from the consequences. The victim, or the individual who was accused wrongly, is the one that under many effects. Turn back to the case of Carrillo, it can be seen that he had not finished high school by the time he was convicted of being the murderer. He spent his 19 years of youth behind the bars, has not had a chance to take care of his pregnant girlfriend; he did not have a chance to take care of his son during his grown-up period; he did not have a chance to enjoy his own life like any of his friends.... [tags: Law, Jury, Judge, Eyewitness identification]
1213 words (3.5 pages)
- The reliability of eyewitness testimony has been the subject of many studies in Psychology over the years. ‘Judges, lawyers and psychologists believe it to be just about the least trustworthy kind of evidence of guilt, whereas jurors have always found it more persuasive that any other sort of evidence’ Brown (1986) Bartlett’s theory of reconstructive memory (1932) suggests that we tend to see and in particular interpret and recall what we see according to what we expect and assume to be normal in a given situation, which certainly questions the reliability of eye witness testimony.... [tags: Testimony, Witness, Question]
1852 words (5.3 pages)
- The Importance of the Accuracy of Children’s Eyewitness Testimonies An Eyewitness testimonial is a legal term that refers to an account of events given by a witness. These eye witness accounts are important and significant because they are sometimes considered to be direct evidence in court. The justice system takes eyewitness testimonies into strong consideration when they determine a verdict. Thus, the matter of the accuracy of testimonies, especially in children, raise questions because of the weight it holds in the final verdict.... [tags: Question, Eyewitness identification, Answer]
1084 words (3.1 pages)