Andragogy has been defined as “any intentional and professionally guided activity that aims at a change in adult persons” (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005, p. 60). In the mid-twentieth century, researchers like Bruner, Gibb, Miller, Overstreet, Savicevic—and most notably Knowles—began to use the concept to explore “the art and science of how adults learn” (Knowles et al., 2005, p. 61).
The primary assumptions of Knowles’ andragogical model are:
1. “Adults need to know why they need to learn something before they learn it.”
2. Adults “need to be seen…and treated by others as being capable of self-direction.”
3. Adults bring a great deal of experience to their learning and “the richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves.”
4. Adult’s readiness to learn is triggered by their “moving from one developmental stage to another.”
5a. “Adults are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive the learning will help them perform tasks or deal with problems that they confront in their life situations.”
5b. Adults learn “most effectively when [new learnings] are presented in the context of application to real-life situations.”
6. “Adults are responsive to some external motivators…but the most potent motivators are internal pressures.” (Knowles et al., 2005, pp. 64-68)
Knowles has drawn his assumptions from a specific segment of the population. What has been left out from his theoretical frame work are women, people of color, working class adults. Adults immigrant learners and other marginalized groups, whose experiences are often ignored in adult learning settings. (Lee, Ming-Yeh pg.12) Education of adults has long been perceived as different from education of children in both ...
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According to Knowles (1975), in its broadest sense, self-directed learning describes a process “... in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.”
Psalm 119:71-73 It is good for me that I was afflicted, That I may learn Your statutes. The law of Your mouth is better to me Than thousands of gold and silver pieces. Your hands made me and fashioned me; Give me understanding, that I may learn Your commandments. Titus 3:14 Our people must also learn to engage in good deeds to meet pressing needs, so that they will not be unfruitful. Hebrews 5:8 Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered.
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