Affirmative action is a deliberate effort to provide full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas for women, minorities, and individuals belonging to other traditionally disadvantaged groups. As an issue of today's society,
affirmative action requires corporations, universities and other organizations to establish programs designed to ensure that all applicants are treated fairly. It also places a burden of proof on the providers of opportunities; to some degree, the providers must be able to demonstrate that their granting of opportunities to white males is not discriminatory.
The policy mentioned above was first brought before the Supreme Court in 1978 in the case of University of California v. Bakke. Alan Bakke, a white man, had been denied twice to admission to a University of California medical school. It was even shown that his admission test scores were higher than several minority group students who had been accepted. Bakke sued on the basis of discrimination against white males and claimed that the school had a quota. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bakke, but stated that the it was not a violation of affirmative action per se. The Court said that only rigid racial quotas were an impermissible form of affirmative action in determining medical school admissions.
The Bakke case was followed by two rulings in favor of affirmative action programs, one of which, Fullilove v. Klutnick, upheld a quota system that required ten percent of federal public works funds to be set aside for minority-owned firms. The view of the Supreme Court was narrowed in the 1980s when new, more conservative justices were appointed. The Court held that preferred tre...
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...ica=s ideals on its side, and no resort to logic can persuade either side that the opposing viewpoint should prevail.
Affirmative action relates directly to the individual verses society humanity-based theme. For example, the women and minority groups fighting for individual freedoms in the general society. Many individuals have worked and still work for their specific rights and freedoms to be granted. It takes the initiative of individuals to make a difference in the society.
1. Hill, John. "Affirmative Action: Roots to Success."
http://www.afronet.com/WB/031597-2.html (2 April 1998)
2. Legislative Analyst. "Analysis of Proposition 209."
http://Vote96.ss.ca.gov./Vote96/html/BP/209analysis.htm (2 April 1998)
3. "Proposition 209: Text of Proposed Law."
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