the noble Florentine’s Dioptrick Glasses
For what a better, fitter guift Could bee
in this World’s Aged Luciosity.
To help our Blindnesses so as to devize
a paire of new &Artificial eyes
By whose augmenting power wee now see
more than all world Has ever doun Before.”
Henry Powers, 1664
Of the five senses, the most important is sight.It aids in the process of gathering information about the environment that we are part of.However, this visual gathering is adequate only to a certain point. Beyond this point, the human unaided eye fails to help us; the amount of detail that it can provide is severely limited.In order to overcome those limitations, humans started to develop instruments like the magnifying glass, the spectacles, the telescope and the microscope.
The earliest development of the microscope can be traced back to the ancient world with the appearance of the magnifying glass, which was at that time use as a “burning glass.”The conception of the action of the magnifying glass with regards to the production of a magnified image that could supplement the human eye first appeared in the 13th century. It was at this time that the ancestor of the microscope ancestor, the glass lens, first appeared.It was discovered by Roger Bacon in 1268. As he tried to improve the “burning glass,” he accidentally broke a crystal sphere and made several observations through it. This led him to the following conclusion:
“If anyone examine letters or other minute objects through the medium of crystal or glass or other transparent substance, if it be shaped like the lesser segment of a sphere, with the convex side toward the eye, he will see ...
... middle of paper ...
... electron microscope (TEM), and the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Both of them work under the same basic principle, with the exception that a SEM scans the surface of a thinly sliced sample bit by bit and a TEM looks at a relatively large area of the sample all at once. Scanning electron microscopes can magnify objects 100,000 times or more.
Scanning probe microscope- uses a probe to scan the surface of a sample and provides a three-dimensional image of atoms or molecules on the surface of the object. The probe is an extremely sharp metal point that can be as narrow as a single atom at the tip.It provides detailed images of substances that can conduct electricity.In addition, it has a sensing mechanism that records the up-and-down movements of the probe and feeds the data into a computer, which creates a three-dimensional image of the surface of the sample.
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