Essay on The Fall of the French Monarchy

Essay on The Fall of the French Monarchy

Length: 2117 words (6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The revolution resulted, among other things, in the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy in France and in the establishment of the First Republic. It was generated by a vast complex of causes, the most important of which were the inability of the ruling classes of nobility, clergy, and bourgeoisie to come to grips with the problems of state, the indecisive nature of the monarch, impoverishment of the workers, the intellectual ferment of the Age of Enlightenment, and the example of the American Revolution. Recent scholarship tends to downplay the social class struggle and emphasize political, cultural, ideological, and personality factors in the advent and unfolding of the conflict. The Revolution itself produced an equally vast complex of consequences.
For more than a century before the accession of Louis XVI in 1774, the French government had undergone periodic economic crises, resulting from the long wars waged during the reign of Louis XIV, royal mismanagement of national affairs under Louis XV, the losses incurred in the French and Indian War (1756-63), and increased indebtedness arising from loans to the American colonies during the American Revolution (1775-83). The advocates of fiscal, social, and governmental reform became increasingly vocal during the reign of Louis XVI. In August 1774, Louis appointed a liberal comptroller general, the economist Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de L'Aulne, who instituted a policy of strict economy in government expenditures. Within two years, however, most of the reforms had been withdrawn and his dismissal forced by reactionary members of the nobility and clergy, supported by Queen Marie Antoinette. Turgot's successor, the financier and statesman Jacques Necker, similarly accomplished little before his downfall in 1781, also because of opposition from the reactionaries. Nevertheless, he won popular acclaim by publishing an accounting of the royal finances, which revealed the heavy cost of privileges and favoritism. During the next few years the financial crisis steadily worsened. Popular demand for convocation of the Estates-General (an assembly made up of representatives of the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners), which had been in adjournment since 1614, finally compelled Louis XVI in 1788 to authorize national elections.
During the ensuing campaign, censorship was suspended, and a flood of pamphlets expres...

... middle of paper ...

...Dumouriez, checked the Prussian advance on Paris at Valmy. On the day after the victory at Valmy, the newly elected National Convention convened in Paris. In its first official moves that day, the convention proclaimed establishment of the First Republic and abolished the monarchy. Encouraging reports arrived almost weekly from the armies, which had assumed the offensive after the battle at Valmy and had successively captured Mainz, Frankfurt am Main, Nice, Savoie, the Austrian Netherlands, and other areas. In the meantime, however, strife steadily intensified in the convention, with the plain vacillating between support of the conservative Girondists and the radical Montagnards.
In a test of strength, a majority approved the Montagnard proposal that Louis be brought to trial before the convention for treason. On January 15, 1793, by an almost unanimous vote, the convention found the monarch guilty as charged, but on the following day, when the nature of the penalty was determined, factional lines were sharply drawn. By a vote of 387 to 334, the delegates approved the death penalty. Louis XVI went to the guillotine on January 21, and with him, the French Monarchy was decapitated.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on The French Revolution And The Revolution

- The French Revolution During the 1700 's, the French Revolution happened. The French Revolution was a powerful time of social and political change in France and a significant time period that kept going from 1789 until 1799. Numerous causes drove up this uprising. These causes incorporate the Age of Enlightenment, political issues and money related hardships. For hundreds of years, the personal satisfaction in Europe had been controlled by the status that a man or family held. This status couldn 't be earned, however was dictated by the family to which somebody was conceived....   [tags: French Revolution, Age of Enlightenment]

Powerful Essays
2292 words (6.5 pages)

The Revolution Of The French Revolution Essay

- Sun Tzu, in his famous book, The Art of War, wrote, “There is no instance of a nation benefitting from prolonged warfare” (7). Wars are always costly, both to the victor and the defeated. France during the 18th century just came out of the Seven Years’ War and helping the colonists during the American Revolution, thus, their economy was pushed to the edge. There were many reasons that caused the downfall of the French monarchy and started the French Revolution. France’s economic failure and the increase of knowledge of the general population lead to the downfall of the French monarchy....   [tags: Age of Enlightenment, Voltaire, French Revolution]

Powerful Essays
727 words (2.1 pages)

The Downfall Of The Monarchy Essay

- Thinking of a time without monarchs was all but impossible in this period of time, but if only a few short years that impossibility became reality. This sacred person who ruled over all had become someone that would infringe on the new system that was put in place through the revolution. A change in the people will take time but as events continue to chop down at their faith in the monarch will lead to the downfall.The overthrowing of a monarchy usually happens for similar reasons no matter where you go in the world; either the people are not being heard, the ruler is a tyrant, or because of finances....   [tags: French Revolution, Louis XVI of France, Democracy]

Powerful Essays
1428 words (4.1 pages)

Causes of the French Revolution Essay

- Analyze the various causes of the French Revolution. Include social, economic and ideological factors Just as any story has a climax; one can deduce that the 17th and 18th centuries were the turning point for most of European history; however, different places experienced this change in different ways. As the previous discoveries and inventions were made by remarkable scientists like Galileo, the Enlightenment was the next logical step in the era. As incredible philosophers like Jean- Jacques Rousseau along with John Locke stepped in, people all over Europe began to realize the importance and even the mere concept of reason and natural rights granted to all persons....   [tags: French History]

Powerful Essays
1145 words (3.3 pages)

Factors Leading To The French Revolution Essay

- “Man is born free, and everywhere he is shackled” 1 were the famous words of French Enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau, but these simple words are also an example of the feelings and inevitable reality of most French people during the late eighteenth century. It was the writers, thinkers, and philosophers like Rousseau whose principles shaped the beginning of a monumental movement throughout Europe which eventually led to the French Revolution. The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason was a time in French history that is best characterized by “… (The) trend that emphasized reason, individualism, and human rights as opposed to tradition.” 2 There are many factors, symbols a...   [tags: french history, rousseau]

Powerful Essays
1085 words (3.1 pages)

The French Revolutionary War of 1848 Essay

- The numerous revolutions and uprisings that took place in Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century signified the onset of more than a few liberalistic revolutions that shaped this continent’s governance to this date. This revolutionary wave was very significant, as it marked the collapse of traditional authorities and the establishment of more political and democratic forms of government. This year 1848; has been recognized by many as the ‘year of revolution’ because of the great number of political revolutions that took place allover Europe at this time....   [tags: French Revolution of 1848]

Powerful Essays
3094 words (8.8 pages)

The French Revolution And The Revolution Essay

- The French Revolution In 1789, the French people were fraudulently treated revolted to form change in France. This is the typical standard of all the begins of Revolutions around the world, just comparable to the Revolution in early America. The powering government used their supremacy over the American colonies in injustice ways, that is a similar case if what happened in France. But this time there was no other power inflicting against them but their own system that was corrupted. The French people were frustrated against the injustice customs of the government against them and so they demanded and pursued for change, subsequently like how the Americans revolted against Britain....   [tags: French Revolution, Estates of the realm]

Powerful Essays
1038 words (3 pages)

The French Revolution And The American Revolution Essay example

- ]“Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.” – Jennifer Donnelly. The French Revolution was a time period in which the people of its country had enough. They ripped up the thousand-year-old monarchy and redesigned their country’s way of government. The French Revolution was a time of struggle for its people. King Louis XVI had essentially bankrupted the country with his lavish spending and his involvement in the American Revolution....   [tags: Louis XVI of France, French Revolution]

Powerful Essays
917 words (2.6 pages)

The French Revolution And The English Civil War Essays

- The French Revolution and the English Civil War were arguably two of the biggest events in English and French history. The English Civil War spanned from 1642 to 1651, while the French Revolution occurred from 1789 to 1799. During these times monarchies were running on thin ice as the people began to lose faith in their rulers. The monarchies lack of social reliance was a cause of both of these events to occur. Both of these events occurred due to multiple political and economic problems in each of their time periods....   [tags: Estates of the realm, French Revolution]

Powerful Essays
1155 words (3.3 pages)

French Absolutism and the French Revolution Essay example

- French Absolutism and the French Revolution During the period between 1589 through 1783, the French Monarchy had risen to its height of absolute power and then was destroyed by the French Revolution. The reigns of Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI each contributed to the strengthening of the French Monarchy as well as the destruction. Class struggles were a major problem throughout the reigns of each king. France was broken into three estates that were; the clergy, the nobility, and the common people....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
2294 words (6.6 pages)