The Development of Modern Africa
There are over 40 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the wealth of natural resources and the prevalence of wealth in the northern segments of Africa have led many to speculate about the equity and economic development in the sub-Sahara. Unfortunately, the progression of economic, political and social factors in this region have done little to improve the overall conditions, and have instead demonstrated a consistent bias towards the government and the social elites that has impacted the chances of successful development in the region. Since the end of World War II, changes in the infrastructure, the political forces, and in the capacity for collective action in many of these countries has underscored what some have described as the “Africa crisis” (Stryker, 1986).
One of the major issues that still remain in this region is the history of development in the sub-Sahara, generally traced back to the history of British rule, and the relinquishing of colonial control which led to greater regionalization. But there was little in place in terms of expansion planning or economic development in the period following the end of the Second World War, and it can be argued that the struggle for economic development is linked to existing and maintained inequities, based both on social conditioning and political control, that has weakened the agrarian force and impacted the development of industrialization.
During the 1980s, when many countries through out the world were experiencing the successful pull away from years of recession, the countries of the African sub-Sahara were not impacted by this positive transformation, and instead, it was posited that the decline in economic conditions would result in years of continued recession (Stryker, 1986). A number of theorists have attributed this crisis to different components of the politics, the economic base, and the social perspectives, as well as basic problems like the lowest world-wide life expectancy, lowest nutritional and literacy rates, lack of access to medical care, safe water supplies, and support services, and high population growth coupled by the highest infant mortality rates in the world (Stryker, 1986). It has been recognized that of the 40-50 poorest counties of the world, most (2/3) are located in the sub-Saha...
... middle of paper ...
...ility, the perception that reforms could somehow promote a major transformation within the varied communities of the sub-Sahara placed too great an emphasis on the process of development and too little emphasis on the impact that the division itself would have on existing communities.
Berry, Sara (1992, Summer). Hegemony on a shoestring: indirect rule and access to agricultural land. Africa, v62 n3, pp. 327(29).
Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena (1992, May). Do African governments favor defense in budgeting? Journal of Peace Research, v29 n2, pp. 191(16).
Jaycox, Edward (1993, March). Structural adjustment spurs African development. Africa News, v38 n2-3, pp. 14(1).
Lonsdale, J.M. (1970). Nationalism and Traditionalism in East Africa. in Collins, R., Ed. Problems in the History of Colonial Africa, 1860-1960. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Seitz, Steven (1991, January-April). The military in black African politics. Journal of Asian and African Studies, v26 n1-2, pp. 61(15).
Stryker, Richard (1986). Poverty, inequality, and development choices in contemporary Africa. in Martin, P. and O’Meara, P., Eds. Africa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Introduction Witchcraft has been rampant in various parts of Africa. However, the practice of witchcraft has been on the decline in modern society as compared to the period before the rise of colonialism (Toyin 250). In most part of Africa, there is a conglomeration of tribal healers, sorcerers, and wizard considered having different forms of powers in controlling the fate of society (Toyin 209). Consequently, this has led to the emergence of thousands of practitioners in different parts of Africa.... [tags: Africa, Modern Society, Colonialism]
1617 words (4.6 pages)
- ... The development caught the attention of many countries that soon became involved in efforts to end it. The major countries that were involved in what was known as the anti-apartheid movement included the UK, Holland, and the U.S. with the UK being the most effective (AAM). In the 1980’s the UK not only organized, but also engaged in various protests and campaigns to help weaken the strain of the apartheid. In the light of the movement they established numerous branches in the country which would then aid in the displacement of the apartheid regime in South Africa (AAM).... [tags: South Africa, Nelson Mandela]
1143 words (3.3 pages)
- ... They always face the bad sides of teaching profession, by been severe in class with the student, so that there is a very big distance between students an teachers, that make students not be able to ask a question, or build a good relation with their instructors. Student dreams are oriented on an example he wished to achieve, this his sometimes influenced by the instructor to guide, and make them succeed in life. Most of the times the good education system has to be settle down according to good and qualified teachers, especially in primary and secondary school, so that when they attend the university, it can be easily for them to promote and succeed in their courses.... [tags: Africa, Education, Sub-Saharan Africa]
2222 words (6.3 pages)
- ... They could build many things in this secluded area the first thing I suggest is a new airport and hotels before anything else so people are able to go there and have a place to stay. Other things they could build in the area to make it marketable is a safari and things like that to show people the real southeast African experience. The other way they could make money that is not making it more marketable is by distributing and selling natural resources, since southeast Africa Is a coastal area they could go to the coast and collect and resources from the water or area around, which then they could sell t bring in more money into their country and better their economy.... [tags: Africa, Madagascar, Human Development Index]
1225 words (3.5 pages)
- Underdevelopment of Africa Underdevelopment in Africa is a problem that has been plaguing the countries all over the continent for a very long time. It has so many negative effects on Africans. It has brought about so many consequences, but of all, the economy is the most affected sector because the economic sector controls all other aspect of the society. Underdevelopment in Africa is as a result of many contributing factors which include poverty, illiteracy, very large extended families, corruption and lack of accountability.... [tags: Africa]
626 words (1.8 pages)
- The 18th and 19th centuries were known as the height of Imperialism. European countries became more and more engaged in the “Scramble for Africa”. Nations including Britain, Spain, France, Portugal, Belgium, and Germany raced to conquer lands in Africa. Imperialism in Africa had many negative and positive effects on the conquered country. It brought modernized technology and certain reforms, while it also introduced racist laws, enforced harsh labors, and ruined the economies of many colonies. Although European imperialism in Africa brought modernized technology, Imperialism was not beneficial for Africa due to the social, economic, and political costs that the Europeans brought.... [tags: imperialism, african colonies, africa]
931 words (2.7 pages)
- Introduction Modern African states have several problems ranging from corruption, to armed conflict, to stunted structural development. The effects of colonialism have been offered as a starting point for much of the analysis on African states, but the question of why African states are particularly dysfunctional needs to be examined, given the extent to which they have lagged behind other former European colonies in many aspects. In the first section, I will consider the problems with African states from the level of the state.... [tags: African Countries, Post Colonial Africa]
1698 words (4.9 pages)
- ... For example, factories in America, China, and Japan have been constructing vehicles for decades. However, Africans do not have the training, nor education, necessary in order for competition with other nations around the world. So they are forced to remain a third-world country until their hunger crisis is under control, education increases, and means of production is advanced enough, and capable enough, to provide for the millions of people on the continent. It is not until then, where Africans will have a booming economy and a competitive world market.... [tags: Poverty, Africa, Malnutrition, Starvation]
2182 words (6.2 pages)
- In today’s world it is important to understand where we come from and to understand the opportunities that exists thru culture and diversity. With such an interconnected world we must be able to learn to communicate with individuals who come from a diverse set of cultures and traditions. By having respect for diversity and having global awareness means that one can appreciate and respect someone’s personal and cultural differences. It also means that we are aware of diverse needs, feelings and views of other people around us.... [tags: Africa, Poverty, World, Continent]
1071 words (3.1 pages)
- ... It not only has great influence on the avant-garde artists those who are at the beginning of the 20th century and led to the appearance of the new art movement, but also had huge impact on the form and the thought of graphic design. The main representative personages are Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Their creation come from two different source, one is the original art form of Africa, especially the primitive tribal masks, sculptures, and unearthed relics of Egypt; Another one is Paul Cezanne 's still life and landscape painting.... [tags: Cubism, Collage, Modern art, Georges Braque]
1224 words (3.5 pages)