“Learned helplessness is a phenomenon containing three components: contingency, cognition, and behavior. Contingency addresses the uncontrollability of the situation. Cognition refers to the attributions that people make regarding their situation or surroundings of which they are a part. Behavior allows individuals to decide whether they will give up or proceed with the obstacle set before them” (Peterson, Maier, & Seligman, 1993; Firmin, Hwang, Copella, & Clark, 2004). When a student thinks about college he must take either the ACT or the SAT test to be admitted into the college. Students have a lot of decisions to make that can be stressful. Failure is an aspect that students fear and can determine whether they will succeed in life.
The ACT was founded in 1959. A l...
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...t you are allowed to guess on the ACT and on the SAT if you are unsure you want to leave it blank because getting it wrong will give you a lower score.
If you are graduating high school in 2006 and beyond there will be a new SAT test. The test will contain three sections: Math, Critical Reading, and Writing. The math section will have 44 multiple-choice questions and 10 in-grid questions. You will be allowed 70 minutes to complete this section. The critical reading section will have 67 multiple-choice questions and you will be given 70 minutes to complete. The writing section has 49 multiple-choice questions and you are given 60 minutes. You are graded on Grammar, usage, and word choice.
“The need, as we view it, is to develop a number of different alternative evaluation instruments and strategies that provide hard data but are not in the form of the standard paper-and pencil multiple-choice tests now being used in most testing programs. What we advocate are assessment instruments that support proven methods in the visual arts and also take advantage of all the newer imaging technology” (Medeja, Dom, & Sabol, 2004).
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