schools and scheduling Essay

schools and scheduling Essay

Length: 3133 words (9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

I.      Title Page:


Which Schedule? Learning and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk, Ninth Grade, Math and Science Students Using Three Scheduling Methods: Parallel Block Alternate-Day Block and Traditional

University Name

Name of Class / Title of Project / Name of Professor and his/her title
Abstract Page: (State the Purpose of the Study)
For many generations, high school students have had a schedule of six to eight periods a day with each class meeting every day for forty-five to sixty minutes. To better utilize the time spent with students, many schools have begun to reform scheduling practices. Many schools have chosen to change to block scheduling with the purpose of improving the outcomes of student learning and student behavior. There are many variations of block schedule in use. This study examines the effect of this reform in scheduling practices by comparing the learning and behavior outcomes of parallel block, alternate-day block, and traditional scheduling over an eighteen week period. Learning outcomes were obtained from pre-test and post-test measures and behavior outcomes were measured through absences, tardies, and office referrals for suspensions and detentions.

II.     Review of Research Literature including Definition of Terms: Review all literature that supports the importance of the study (what has been done and what needs to be done.) Also review literature related to your independent variables in each arm and dependent variables (measures and instrumentation).

Which Schedule? Learning and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Ninth Grade Math and Science Students Using Three Scheduling Methods: Parallel Block, Alternate-Day Block, and Traditional
     Secondary schools were originally designed very much like factories. Classrooms were designed as isolated work stations that could be used only by specific persons at specific times of day and students moved from room to room to receive instruction from the teacher assigned to that room, controlling the four critical facets of the school day: time, the use of space, the grouping of students, and the role of staff members in the use of space (Khazzaka & DeLeon, 1997). To better use these critical facets, educators have been...

... middle of paper ...

... scheduling and traditional scheduling on academic      achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 178-     183.
Marchant, G.J. & Paulson, S.B. (2001). Differential school      functioning in a block schedule: a comparison of academic      profiles. High School Journal, 84, 12-21.
Meister, D.G., and Nolan, Jr., J. (2001). Out on a limb on our      own: uncertainty and doubt in moving from subject-centered      to interdisciplinary teaching. Teachers College Record,      103, 608-631.
Queen, J.A. (2000). Block scheduling revisited. Phi Delta      Kappan, 82, 214-223.
Santos, K.E. & Rettig, M.D. (1999). Going on the block meeting      the needs of students with disabilities in high schools      with block scheduling. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31,      54-59.
Veal, W.R. (1999). What could define block scheduling as a fad?      American Secondary Education, 27, 3-12.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Disadvantages of Block Scheduling

- In order to properly research a topic, first an adequate definition is required. Kellough (2003) defined block scheduling as: The school programming procedure that provides large blocks of time (e.g., two hours) in which individual teachers or teacher teams can organize and arrange groupings of students for varied periods of time, thereby effectively individualizing the instruction for students with various needs and abilities. (439) Traditionally, schools schedule six or seven 40- to 55- minute classes per day....   [tags: Negtive Impact of Block Scheduling]

Free Essays
1109 words (3.2 pages)

Research Report on Restructuring Middle Schools Essay

- Introduction Demographic shifts in local communities, funding changes and staff contract requirements are some of the local issues and concerns that drive middle school restructuring. Restructuring of middle schools may include: changes to scheduling, course options and selection, composition of inter-disciplinary teams of teachers, the amount and use of collaborative planning time, the model of support for special needs students and the creation of specialized programs within a school. Each of these areas has implications on budgets, staffing, and students’ educational experience and involves decisions that must be made or facilitated by school administrators....   [tags: public schools]

Strong Essays
1822 words (5.2 pages)

Evaluation of Educational Scheduling Model Essay

- Evaluation of Educational Scheduling Model In the early nineteenth century teachers had limited education, but were required to teach a variety of subjects at any given time of the day. In the early 1950s the Carnegie model of instruction was introduced reflecting the needs of an industrial era rather than the needs of the students of today’s world. In the late 1950s schools began to experiment with upgrading instruction by allowing students to participate in independent studies and by implementing larger class sizes....   [tags: Education]

Strong Essays
1619 words (4.6 pages)

Scheduling Classes, Athletic Events, and Extra Circular Activities Essay

- Scheduling Classes, Athletic Events, and Extra Circular Activities We are all given 24 hours in a day and in an organized system each hour is given a category or name. An Athletic Director has many responsibilities in managing a department that has many activities occurring each day. These activities are physical education classes, practice schedules and locations, meeting special needs students, coordinating game schedules for each sport, and finding time to mentor those within the department. Each area presents its own challenge to synergistically work with the available facilities that are available....   [tags: Organized Systems, Athletic Director, School]

Strong Essays
1499 words (4.3 pages)

Effects Of Block Scheduling Essay

- How Block Scheduling Effects In recent years many educators have voiced their concern about as losing our edge in the global marketplace as well as an apparent decline in American students' achievements. This has become a recurring belief for many teachers, parents, and school districts throughout the United States. As a result, many states have begun to increase the amount of units necessary to fulfill graduation requirements in hope to enhance education and make American students more globally competitive....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
3315 words (9.5 pages)

Graduation Speech : Rethinking Block Scheduling

- Penn State freshmen come from a variety of educational backgrounds, however, there is one commonality amongst the class of 2020: everyone had to graduate high school. Despite this fact, some incoming students are not properly prepared for a college education. This is because all students had different schedules and requirements at their respective high schools. Recently, education reform has been a controversial topic, and this is evident in Julie Mack’s article, “Rethinking Block Scheduling.” She argues that block scheduling, which is “is a system for scheduling the middle or high-school day, typically by replacing a more traditional schedule of six or seven 40–50 minute daily periods with...   [tags: High school, Education, College]

Strong Essays
1056 words (3 pages)

Essay about Government-Funded Independent Schools

- An analysis of charter schools – government-funded independent schools that offer either a special theme or are required to meet a particular performance indicator (Davies & Guppy, 2006) – as an alternative to mainstream public education reveals that charter schools should be notnot be supported for several reasons. First, in terms of academic performance, there is little evidence that charter school students fare better than public school students (Murphy, 2003). Second, as new providers of education, advocates claim charter schools bring innovative and fresh new thinking to schooling practices (Davies & Guppy, 2006), but research has found there is weak evidence to support such a claim....   [tags: Education, Charter Schools]

Strong Essays
1726 words (4.9 pages)

Block Scheduling Review Essay

- In this article, Slate and Jones seek to determine the social validity of block scheduling, as one “specific [factor] that can either contribute to or undermine” its effectiveness at a large Georgia high school. The researchers use Wolf’s (1978) definition of social validity; that is, “the extent to which the participants in a program perceive the program is accomplishing worthwhile outcomes through acceptable means” (as cited in Slate & Jones, 2000). The importance of this article stems from the idea that much conflicting research has been done on the effectiveness of block scheduling versus traditional scheduling, and that such research will most likely remain conflicted....   [tags: Article Review ]

Strong Essays
1099 words (3.1 pages)

Charter Schools Essay

- In the 1980s there was much debate on school reform in the United States. The charter school model was an idea for educational reconstruction. These charter schools insured the continuing improvement of schooling (Budde, 1989). In 1991, Minnesota was the first state to pass legislation to create a charter school. In 1992, Minnesota opened the doors of the first charter school in the United States (“Resources,” 2012). Since then, Charter schools have gained wide spread acceptance across the United States....   [tags: education, public schools, student]

Strong Essays
983 words (2.8 pages)

The Block Is Not to Blame: Collaboration to Correct Education Reform Scheduling Efforts

- The early 1990s marked the beginning of major education reform in America's public schools. High school academic calenders were a primary focus of this reform. The four period block schedule was widely adopted over the traditional academic calendar in order to improve student performance, prepare graduates for college, and reduce discipline issues. Twenty years later, following flat academic performance, many of these schools are choosing to revert back to versions of the traditional eight-period school day....   [tags: Education]

Strong Essays
1986 words (5.7 pages)