This exceptional story should be used as a therapeutic aid for hopeless and depressed people who needed a powerful force for continuing struggles of life against fate. They should say as the boy Manolin, "I'll bring the luck by myself." In the story the old man tells us "It is silly not to hope...besides I believe it is a sin." Hemingway draws a distinction between two different types of success: outer-material and inner-spiritual. While the old man lacks the former, the importance of this lack is eclipsed by his possession of the later. He teaches all people the triumph of indefatigable spirit over exhaustible resources. Hemingway's hero as a perfectionist man tells us: To be a man is to behave with honor and dignity, not to succumb to suffering, to accept one's duties without complaint, and most importantly to have maximum self-control. At the end of the story he mentions, "A man is not made for defeat...a man can be destroyed but not defeated." The book finishes with this symbolic sentence: "The old man was dreaming about lions."
It is a psychological analysis of Hemingway famous story that we have used it as a psychotherapeutic aid for hopeless and depressed people and also psychological victims of war in a more comprehensive therapeutic plan.
The first sentence of the book announces itself as Hemingway's: "He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf stream and he had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish" . The words are plain, and the structure, two tightly-worded independent clauses conjoined by a simple conjunction, is ordinary, traits which characterize Hemingway's literary style.
Santiago is the protagonist of the novella. He is an old fisherman in Cuba who, when we meet him at the beginning of the book, has not caught anything for eighty-four days. The novella follows Santiago's quest for the great catch that will save his career. Santiago endures a great struggle with a uncommonly large and noble marlin only to lose the fish to rapacious sharks on his way back to land. Despite this loss, Santiago ends the novel with his spirit undefeated. Some have said that Santiago represents Hemingway himself, searching for his next great book, an Everyman, heroic in the face of human tragedy, or the Oedipal male unconscious trying to slay his fat...
... middle of paper ...
...session of the later. One way to describe Santiago's story is as a triumph of indefatigable spirit over exhaustible material resources. As noted above, the characteristics of such a spirit are those of heroism and manhood. That Santiago can end the novella undefeated after steadily losing his hard-earned, most valuable possession is a testament to the privileging of inner success over outer success.
Triumph over crushing adversity is the heart of heroism, and in order for Santiago the fisherman to be a heroic emblem for humankind, his tribulations must be monumental. Triumph, though, is never final. Hemingway vision of heroism is Sisyphean, requiring continuous labor for quintessentially ephemeral ends. What the hero does is to face adversity with dignity and grace, hence Hemingway's Neo-Stoic emphasis on self-control and the other facets of his idea of manhood. What we achieve or fail at externally is not as significant to heroism as the comporting ourselves with inner nobility. As Santiago says, "Man is not made for defeat....A man can be destroyed but not defeated" .
Hemingway, Ernest (1952). The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The therapeutic use of humor can be loosely defined as any activities that use the positive emotional responses associated with humor, smiling and laughter to specifically benefit one or more clients’ social, emotional, physical, cognitive or wellness domains. Using humor, therapeutically, involves establishing specific desired outcomes for a client which are facilitated by the use of humor and related techniques. Dattilo & McKenney, (2011) define the therapeutic use of humor when “specialists and others use humor in practice, they play for it to lead to specific therapeutic outcomes”.... [tags: humor, therapeutic recreation, clowns]
1100 words (3.1 pages)
- Mistreatment of the Mentally and Psychosocially Ill A woman who suffered from a nervous breakdown admitted herself to Little Brook Hospital in Dartford, Kent and rather than being properly treated, she was abused, heavily sedated, and raped 60 times by a care worker. Believe it or not, incidents like this happen around the world to the mentally and psychosocially disabled every day. According to the Citizens Commission on Human Rights’ Mental Health Declaration of Human Rights, the mentally and/or psychosocially ill have the “..right to full and informed consent, …the right to be treated with dignity as a human being, …The right to proper diet and nutrition.” (“Mental...) as well as the abi... [tags: Disability, Human rights, Mental disorder]
1418 words (4.1 pages)
- Cooking is a painstaking process, with all its measurements and all its instructions. The separation of some ingredients, the combination of others. Yet, cooking is also an unmindful activity, where you cease to be and you are the splendor of ingredients mixing to create a delightful product. There 's an intrinsic therapeutic aspect to cooking I had not realized until I started helping at Venice Family Clinic. I have come to learn that cooking is a contradictory art. It is both simple and complex.... [tags: Nutrition, Food, Cooking, Junk food]
727 words (2.1 pages)
- Therapeutic communication is a crucial and necessary tool that should be used on all occasions when dealing with a patient in the health care industry. I found the vignette video ‘Pregnant Stroke – Incident Scene’ to be a good example of how therapeutic communication should be used to create a human connection between patient and professional. The video involves paramedics attending the scene of a female having suffered from a stroke whilst pregnant. Allied health professionals initially perform a brief medical assessment on the patient by checking her vitals inclusive of blood pressure and heart rate.... [tags: Therapeutic Communication Essays]
792 words (2.3 pages)
- Animals may be incorporated into the treatment process to facilitate the attainment of calculated goals and objectives. These goals and objectives may be physical (fine or gross motor skills), social (casual interaction), intellectual (recreation education), or emotional (anxiety reduction) in nature. Animals involved in these interventions have undergone rigorous training and assessment processes and are accompanied by trained handlers with dedicated knowledge of the profession (Powell, 2012). Potential Target Groups Research demonstrates that the therapeutic use of animals may be beneficial to a wide range of individuals.... [tags: therapeutic animals, recreation therapist]
1372 words (3.9 pages)
- Greene (2011), third chapter discussed the geriatric assessment process and aspects of functional age. The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person 's functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socio-environmental circumstances (Greene, 2011). “Assessment of an adult involves getting to know the person and their motives, strengths, challenges, and capacity to change “(Greene, 2011, p.64) A geriatric assessment may be utilized to coordinate services and care for a client.... [tags: Sociology, Gerontology, Old age, Geriatrics]
1061 words (3 pages)
- 1a. Explain your understanding of a "therapeutic relationship" with a client. A therapeutic relationship with a client is a well planned and goal oriented connection between the clinician and the client in order to meet the therapeutic needs. The clinician would develop and maintain mutually beneficial association with the client and his family. He always believes the client as a person of goodness, dignity and strength. 1b. what are the benefits of a therapeutic relationship. Encourages Positive Interaction Encouraging a patient to express himself allows you to get more information of the client's emotional tendencies and helps determine the most beneficial treatment approach.... [tags: Therapeutic Relationship Essays]
1402 words (4 pages)
- Aspects of Active Ageing. Aged care is becoming such a huge part of our health system and society in general. It is so important that we come to an understanding on not only how it affects the community and society that we live in but the requirements that need to be met in order to care for older adults. Throughout this paper, we will discuss active ageing and the cultural, physical, economic and social well-being of older adults, as well as the affect that community as on the older population and visa-vasa.... [tags: Retirement, Old age, Medicine, Gerontology]
1640 words (4.7 pages)
- Old Man and Old Woman as Marital Guide "Old Man and Old Woman," a retelling of a Native American myth by Chewing Blackbones, a Blackfoot Indian, should serve as a lesson to all couples in how a good relationship works. In today’s society there is a great need for people to understand how to make their relationships successful. As the divorce rate gets higher every year; small children have begun to think that getting a divorce is something that is normal and to be expected. This story shows how to work through problems with a give-and-take approach where you make compromises, yet still stand up for yourself when you believe your convictions cannot be compromised.... [tags: Old Man Old Woman Essays]
812 words (2.3 pages)
- In Jacquelyn Small’s book “Becoming Naturally Therapeutic: A Return to the True Essence of Helping,” I explored what it takes to be a genuinely helpful counselor. Although I do not intend to pursue a career in counseling, her book touches on various topics that may be used by all individuals. Small provides her readers with a check-list of characteristic ranging from empathy to respect to self-actualization that are virtually essential to becoming therapeutic. The book begins by stating that “ordinary people” offer better therapeutic help than professionals.... [tags: essays research papers]
932 words (2.7 pages)