Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes. To start off, a protein is made in a ribosome. There are many cellular mechanisms involved with protein synthesis. Before the process of protein synthesis can be described, a person must know what proteins are made out of. There are four basic levels of protein organization. The first is primary structure, followed by secondary structure, then tertiary structure, and the last level is quaternary structure. Once someone understands the makeup of a protein, they can then begin to learn how elements can combine and go from genes to protein. There are two main processes that occur during protein synthesis, or peptide formation. One is transcription and the other is translation. Although these biological processes slightly differ for eukaryotes and prokaryotes, they are the basic mechanisms for which proteins are formed in all living organisms.
There are four main levels of a protein, which make up its native conformation. The first level, primary structure, is just the basic order of all the amino acids. The amino acids are held together by strong peptide bonds. The next level of protein organization is the secondary structure. This is where the primary structure is repeated folded so that it takes up less space. There are two types of folding, the first of which is beta-pleated sheets, where the primary structure would resemble continuous spikes forming a horizontal strip. The seco...
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- Protein Synthesis DNA – is the molecule that carries the genetic information in all cellular forms of life and some viruses. It belongs to a class of molecules called nucleic acids, which are polynucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components. • A nitrogenous base: cytosine, guanine, adenine or thymine. • A deoxyribose sugar • A phosphate molecule The back bone of the polynucleotide is a chain of sugar and phosphate molecules. Each sugar molecule in the sugar phosphate backbone is linked to one of the four nitrogenous bases.... [tags: DNA, Protein, RNA, Amino acid]
1391 words (4 pages)
- Protein synthesis 1. Introduction The information provided by DNA is in the form of a specific sequences of nucleotides along the DNA strands. The content in DNA is inherited by an organism is lead to specific traits because DNA dictates the synthesis of proteins and RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis. Proteins have a direct link with gene expressions through the stages of transcription and translation as DNA directs protein synthesis as it goes from DNA to RNA to proteins. 2. Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation • History, Beadle’s and Tantum’s study The relationship between genes and proteins was discovered beginning with a British physician in 1902 named Arc... [tags: DNA, Protein, RNA, Gene]
707 words (2 pages)
- Protein synthesis is involved in gene expression. Gene expression is the process of DNA that controls protein synthesis. Genes code for certain proteins that are created by DNA transcription and translation (Reece, et al. 334). This happens by using an mRNA template to specify the order of amino acids. Protein synthesis starts on the free ribosomes within the cytosol. The signal sequence that initiates the process is located at the N-terminal end of the polypeptide chain. Different codons along the mRNA are translated into amino acids as a ribosome moves along it.... [tags: Protein, Amino acid, Ribosome, Genetic code]
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- The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis Genetic code is the sequence of organic bases on the double strands of DNA. These bases line up in a particular order to code for things like eye colour, hair colour and height. Every person has an individual genetic code and no two persons are exactly the same. DNA replicates in a semi-conservative manner. The two strands are separated by an enzyme called Helicase and both become templates for new DNA. Each strand then attracts new organic bases to the ones already present e.g.... [tags: Biology]
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- Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis is the process whereby DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) codes for the production of essential proteins, such as enzymes and hormones. Proteins are long chains of molecules called amino acids. Different proteins are made by using different sequences and varying numbers of amino acids. The smallest protein consists of fifty amino acids and the largest is about three thousand amino acids long. Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell but is controlled by DNA located in the nucleus.... [tags: Papers]
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- Protein Synthesis Within the nuclei of every one of our cells lie massive amounts of information. This information is stored neatly in our chromosomes. The coding on these chromosomes dictates every aspect of our physical self, but it is useless if it simply remains undecoded in the depths of our nuclei; it must be translated into something that can be read. This happens in the process of protein synthesis. The first part of the process of protein synthesis is transcription - the creation of RNA based on the DNA template.... [tags: Papers]
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- Protein Synthesis Proteins are some of the most essential compounds on the planet. They perform a variety of tasks ranging from muscle contraction to fighting diseases. Over 50% of the dry weight of organisms are made of proteins; this is because things like your nails and hair are made of proteins. Proteins are also components of biological membranes, and they help regulate the passage of molecules through the membranes. This is all very important to the body, but the most important function, by far, is their use as enzymes to speed up the reactions in the body.... [tags: Papers]
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- Every year it kills approximately 1 Million children world wide. The invader sneakes in unnoticed, takes over, all the while increasing in number as it goes. These children are falling victim to a rotavirus responsible for severe pediatric diarrhea. This rotavirus takes over in the human digestive tract, invading its cells and hijacking its protein synthesis machinery. This inhibits normal protein production in favor of a virus army. Children affected by this have had no chance of recovery, but now a glimmer of hope is visible on the horizon-a cure, whose secret lies in the virus' unique structure-a tunnel, which, like the fate of the virus, could be sealed.... [tags: Biology Protein Synthesis]
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- Protein F is an uncharacterized protein from the Coffea canephora organism, more commonly known as Robusta coffee. Its sequence consists of 420 amino acids, and is coded for by the gene GSCOC_T000168740011. This protein appears to be an aspartate aminotransferase, or an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction of α-ketoglutarate and aspartate to oxaloacetate and glutamate2. Based on a UniProt BLAST search, it appears that the protein is conserved in the organism Theobroma cacao, or cocoa. After analysis of the sequence through an NCBI BLAST search, it can be predicted that Protein F is most likely mitochondrial, especially when compared to similar proteins.... [tags: Protein, Amino acid, Protein structure]
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- According to the Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from Mount Olympus and created mankind from clay while Athena breathed life into clay figures. Not only the Greek mothology but also some other religions also carry “creation of human from clay” story, which was believed how life was created. Today, scientist know that the difference between then non-living objects and living objects is not a result of magic power. Life is made possible by the interaction of organic molecules, which consist of four major classes such as carbonhyrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.... [tags: RNA, DNA, Protein, Ribosome]
710 words (2 pages)