All organisms in life are composed of at least one or more
cells. Cells are the basic units of life. There are three main
features of a cell. First, all organisms consist of one or more
cells. Second, cells are the smallest units of life and third,
cells arise only from preexisting cells. These three facts are
referred to as the cell theory.
All cells can be categorized into two basic cell types.
They are prokaryotic and eukaryotic. To distinguish where cells
are placed in the two categories, what is inside the cell must
first be looked at. Every cell, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic
all contain basic cell parts. They are: a plasma membrane,
cytoplasm, DNA (the genetic material), and ribosomes.
Prokaryotic cells have a simple structure and they are usually
smaller than eukaryotic cells. Also, most prokaryotic cells
contain a cell wall. In addition to having the basic cell parts,
eukaryotic cells also contain a membrane-bounded nucleus and cell
organelles. The membrane surrounding the nucleus in eukaryotic
cells, separate the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Most of the cells we used in the experiments held, were
multicellular or consisting of more than one cell. A variety of
cells were used in completing the experiments. We used union
cells, cheek cells, potato cells, and Elodeo cells. We also used
Planaria which is a unicellular organism. Many stains and dyes
were used in the experiments. They were water, methylene blue,
salts, and iodine.
In our studies of cells, we conducted three experiments to
test the different features of cells. The first two experiments
were on how membranes were selectively permeable, diffusion, and
osmosis. To test this, we set up two experiments. The first
experiment we set up had three cups. In each cup a potato slice
and a different liquid was put in. In the first cup was filled
with distilled water. The second cup was filled with salt water
and the third was left empty. We left these cups sit for twenty-
four hours and then we observed them.
The second experiment we set up involved dialysis tubing
which was acting like a membrane. In the dialysis tubing we put
a liquid that was made of starches and sugars. We then put the
dialysis tubing into a beaker of water wh...
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...c solution and sucked up some of the water in the
When we observed the cheek cells we found they were very
different from the plant cells. The nucleus was in the middle of
the cheek cells and there were a few cell organelles. The
Planaria cell was all red and had lines running down it. In this
cell though, the nucleus was not present.
The plant cells and animal cells were very different. In
the plant cells there was motion of cell parts but in the animal
cells there was no motion. Also, the nucleus and chloroplast of
the plant cell were towards the outside of the cell because the
chloroplast can receive sunlight better on the outside of the
cell than on the inside. In the animal cells though, the nucleus
and cell organelles, were towards the middle of the cell.
All organisms in life are made of at least one or more
cells. Cells are the basic units to life. Without cells life
cannot exist. In our experiments we went to look how cells
function and what are their features. In finding this
information, I know have a better understanding of how cells
function and their specific features.
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