The Enuma Elish, often known as The Creation Epic, is often considered the primary source of Mesopotamian cosmology. However, to view the Enuma Elish as a cosmological myth obscures the true intent of the epicís author. The cosmological elements of the Enuma Elish are secondary to the authorís effort to explain the supremacy of Marduk, to justify absolute oriental monarchy, and to defend Babylon as the axis mundi.
The Enuma Elish was composed in Babylonin the early second millennium B.C.E. The decay of Sumerian civilization allowed the Old-Babylonian Empire to become the cultural and political center of Mesopotamia. Babylon was governed by absolute and despotic kings capable of wielding enough power to ensure the continued existence of massive building projects and large-scale irrigation. The harsh environment of Mesopotamia often necessitated the absolute rule by a king powerful enough to command the resources required to maintain civilization.
The poet behind the Enuma Elish sought to justify the position and government of Ba...
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