Monroe doctrine Essay

Monroe doctrine Essay

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     The Monroe Doctrine was presented by President James Monroe in his annual address to Congress in 1823. Essentially its author, John Quincy Adams, who served as Monroe’s Secretary of State, wrote the Doctrine as a proclamation to the United States’ opposition of European colonialism. As of today the Doctrine has been re-interpreted and extended in a variety of ways to conform to the situation at hand, such as President Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary.
     The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 began the break up of the Spanish empires in the New World. From this point, many leaders guided their countries out of colonialism and led them into independence. These newly formed republics requested and expected diplomatic recognition from the United States and many Americans were in favor of the recognitions. Although, as previously identified, the United States had been warned that if it acknowledged the independence of these nations it would be seen as hostile actions towards Europe and both Monroe and Adams were unsure of going to war over countries that could not guarantee survival. Monroe and Adams were prepared to stay neutral as long as the other European powers did not interfere and let Spain and its colonies fight out their differences. The United States was in the process of obtaining East Florida from Spain after gaining West Florida in the Louisiana Purchase which the Spanish Minister Onis agreed to as long as the United States promised not to assist the revolutionaries nor recognize their independence. Once the Transcontinental Treaty was ratified, Monroe began to extend recognition to the new Latin American republics stretched out over a few years so not to gain a European response.
     In 1823, there was talk of Spain and France joining together for attacks on the new republics with the backing of Russia, Prussia, and Austria; fear of France becoming a power once again in the Americas encouraged the British to propose that the United States and Britain join together to warn off the two. Although Jefferson and Madison were in support of the offer, Adams was suspicious. In a cabinet meeting, Adams argued that it would be undignified to address Russia and France explicitly and fight in the shadows of the British, which won over the cabinet and Monroe delivered the Adams ...


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...of the new Dominican Republic regime which owed over twenty million. When Roosevelt initially intervened, he took control over the country’s customs and receivership. Through this seizure, he distributed 45% of their revenues to their foreign creditors, although this occupation lasted for more than three decades. After this intervention the U.S. extended its power throughout the Caribbean when an opportunity arose. In 1930, a memorandum was issued stating that the United States did not have the power to intervene in the less able countries, unless European powers were threatening, which reversed the Corollary.
     When the Monroe Doctrine was first introduced it seemed just as a warning to Europe not to interfere with the revolutions of Latin America, almost a gesture of solidarity and sympathy to the newly independent nations, but it was evident of American selfishness. Monroe and Adams carefully exempted the United States through careful wording when addressing the influence in the Western Hemisphere. The Doctrine was a valid basis for U.S. policy towards Latin America and became a fence to block out European expansion.

     

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