Almost every object of knowledge has a branch of knowledge which studies it. Planets, stars, and galaxies are studied by astronomy. Chemistry studies the structure, composition, and properties of material substances and the transformations they undergo. The origin, evolution, and development of human society is the object studied by sociology. Economics, biology, geography, and grammar all have objects of knowledge which they investigate, describe, and try to explain.
Critical thinking involves a knowledge of the science of logic, including the skills of logical analysis, correct reasoning, and understanding statistical methods. Critical thinking, however, involves more than just an understanding of logical procedures. A good critical thinker must also understand the sources of knowledge, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of truth. But first, what is the science of logic?
The object of knowledge involved in the science of logic is "thinking," but it is "thinking" approached in a special way. Generally speaking, logic is that branch of knowledge which reflects upon the nature of "thinking" itself. But this may confuse logic with other branches of knowledge which also have the nature of "thinking" as a part of their specific object of investigation. We need a more detailed and accurate definition to eliminate any confusion.
Logic doesn't just deal with "thinking" in general. Logic deals with "correct thinking." Training in logic should enable us to develop the skills necessary to think correctly, that is, logically. A very simple definition would be: Logic is the subject which teaches you the rules for correct and proper reasoning. For those of you who want a more complete and "sophisticated" definition of logic, you can define it this way: Logic is the science of those principles, laws, and methods, which the mind of man in its thinking must follow for the accurate and secure attainment of truth. Take your...
... middle of paper ...
...;proof" does not designate the same thing as the word "evidence," and proof is what we are more concerned with in the science of logic. Logic may be said to be concerned with the question of the adequacy or probative value of different kinds of evidence. Traditionally, however, logic has devoted itself mainly to the study of what constitutes proof, that is, complete or conclusive evidence. Proof is essentially a process, an act of testing to determine the validity of an argument which will hopefully support the truth of a proposition presented as a conclusion.
"Proof" is not a simple matter, particularly in situations where evidence has to be weighed in favor of one conclusion or the other. In deductive logic, the matter of proof is fairly straightforward and rules have been made to help us determine the validity of a deductive argument. In inductive logic and processes using scientific method, the situation is not as clear and decisive. Here we enter the world of probability, partial evidence, probable inference, and the problem of the weight of evidence. It is here, also, where arguments become controversial and, to some people at least, most exciting.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- When it comes to nursing school and nursing as a career, clinical reasoning and critical thinking go hand in hand. The APA states that critical thinking is defined as, “purposeful, self-regulatory judgment that uses cognitive tools such as interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, and explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations on which judgment is based”(as cited in Clinical Reasoning, Decision making, and Action: Thinking Critically and Clinically, Benner,Hughes,Sutphen, 2008).... [tags: Critical thinking, Nursing, Thought, Reasoning]
771 words (2.2 pages)
- What is critical thinking. What comes to mind when you think of it and try to break down what it is. Critical thinking is best described by The critical thinking community as aka (cct) “Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.” Critical thinking can be defined as three important elements.... [tags: Critical thinking, Thought, Reasoning, Logic]
1168 words (3.3 pages)
- The Caribbean has had celebrated economists who, in their works, always sought to define the Caribbean experience and produce solutions to the region’s problems. Their achievements arose out of a need for a Third World economic story that was separate from that developed in more advanced nations. Economics, however, has been regarded as a “dismal science” (Carlyle 1849) and some have questioned if it is a science at all. For this essay, we assume that economics is a science and ask “Is and was scientific reasoning a part of economic reasoning in the Caribbean?” The analysis for this paper therefore considers both the publications based on the Caribbean from the 1960s and 1970s and the recen... [tags: caribbean, induction, abduction]
1752 words (5 pages)
- When constructing an argument, the person must come from a logical perspective. In doing so, individuals must understand “the basic principles of logic”. According to D.Q. McInerny, in her book Being Logical, there are four principles of logic. This includes, the principle of individuality, the precept of the excluded middle, the principle of sufficient understanding, and the principle of contradiction. Along with the principles of logic, the language of logic should be taken into account with arguments.... [tags: Logic, Argument, Critical thinking, Reasoning]
980 words (2.8 pages)
- Logical Fallacies Fallacies, in terms of logic, are forms of flawed thinking. They are obstacles—weeds in the garden of the mind, which can be difficult to distinguish from the plants if not closely observed. The nature of fallacies falls in with our nature as human beings—they do not like to be discovered and plucked any more than we like to be the ones to admit that we are incorrect. Accepting responsibility for our actions, and in this case fallacies in our thinking, is the first step to change.... [tags: Critical thinking, Logic, Fallacy, Reasoning]
995 words (2.8 pages)
- Nature of Logic and Perception Critical thinking is the process in which one challenges their emotive, self-centered way of thinking. It causes one to test their own assumptions and question their reasoning. Critical thinking is the process in which one mentally explores deeper than the superficial matters at hand into the deeper layers in order to find out what the real issues are. Successful critical thinking is a process that allows one to creatively problem solve, seek innovative solutions, and essentially "think outside of the box." It also allows one to become more open minded to various situations.... [tags: Critical Thinking]
912 words (2.6 pages)
- When we talk about bioethics we are basically saying what is and isn’t ethical, usually in a health care setting. Bioethics is a very important subject to become familiar with when planning to work in a healthcare setting. Critical thinking is an important aspect in everyone’s life. The question is do they correlate with each other. Bioethics has a lot of similarities to critical thinking, because in bioethics you have to use critical thinking in order to determine what is and isn’t ethical. Bioethics discusses a lot of controversial topics and asks a lot of questions about things such as patient rights, confidentiality, physician assisted suicide and many more.... [tags: bioethics, critical thinking, reasoning]
1026 words (2.9 pages)
- Seven Components of Critical Thinking By Timothy F Bednarz | Submitted On October 08, 2012 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Timothy F Bednarz Critical thinking is a powerful process if understood and applied effectively.... [tags: Logic, Critical thinking, Reasoning, Argument]
908 words (2.6 pages)
- The Six Phases of Critical Thinking By Timothy F Bednarz | Submitted On October 10, 2012 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Timothy F Bednarz Critical thinking can be defined as "learning to think better by improving one 's thinking skills." Individuals who are critical thinkers use the thinking process to analyze (consider and reflect) and synthesize (piece together) what they have le... [tags: Critical thinking, Thought, Reasoning, Mind]
1199 words (3.4 pages)
- Critical Thinking and Ethics The relationship between critical thinking and ethics are essential to the ongoing cycle of discovery, intention, and action, which are the embodiment of the process of thinking critically. Applying ethical principles in correlation with critical thinking to an abstracted set of instances and occurrences is fundamental to the discovery of a definitive solution to any situation that requires efficacious problem-solving and decision-making skills. It is beneficial to employ critical thinking and ethical values daily because they encourage integrity, equality, rationality and successful ventures.... [tags: Ethics, Critical thinking, Reasoning, Virtue]
830 words (2.4 pages)