Horst Schulte, Martin Wirth
Ford Motor Company
Future internal combustion engines for light duty applications will have to cope with a very complex set of
customer, legal and business requirements. Customers are expecting further improvements in durability, reliability,
drivability, fuel economy, and cost of ownership. Legal requirements are focused on significant emission and fuel
consumption reductions. Additional manufacturing cost reductions will be essential to maintain, or better grow the
business in a very competitive environment.
The challenge for the diesel engine will be to meet the future emission standards at affordable cost, while maintaining its
fuel economy advantages. Regarding the emissions, advanced diesel technologies will have to focus mainly on NOx
reduction. New combustion system concepts in combination with advanced airhandling/boosting and control systems
offer a promising potential.
The focus for future gasoline engine development will be on fuel economy improvements through improved combustion
systems and reduced throttle losses at part load operation. This can be achieved through e.g. direct fuel injection with
stratified lean part load operation. Downsizing in combination with boosting offers an additional potential.
Internal combustion engines still have a huge potential to deal with the challenges of the future. In comparison with
alternative powertrain concepts, at least for the next 20 years, the internal combustion engine should be able to maintain
its advantages regarding high power density, low manufacturing cost, recyclability, long driving distance between two
refueling events, well established fuel supply infrastructure, and its capability to use a wide variety of fuels.
Key-words: Diesel and Gasoline Engines, Fuel Economy, Emissions, Combustion, Boosting
Future powertrains for light duty applications have to fulfil a very complex set of requirements (Figure 1), and there is
always the question: "Will the internal combustion engine be able to cope with these challenges also in the future?"
•More Features and Equipment
•Market Share /Total V...
... middle of paper ...
..., R. Hammerle, C. Lambert, G. Wu
Economic Comparison of LNT Versus Urea SCR for
Light Duty Diesel Vehicles in US Market
DOE Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER)
Meeting, Coronado, CA, August 29-Sept 2, 2004
/2/ N. Schorn, E. Karvounis, U. Späder, H. Schulte, D.
Jeckel, P. Barthelet, P.J. Cancalon, O. Salvat, J.
Portalier, J.C. Minichetti
Boosting Systems for Next Generation Passenger Car
Aufladetechnische Konferenz, Dresden, September 23-
/3/ C. Lambert, R. Hammerle, R. McGill, M. Khair, C.
Technical Advantages of Urea SCR for Light-Duty and
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Applications,
SAE Paper 2004-01-1292
/4/ D. Borrmann, F. Brinkmann, K. Walder, B. Pingen,
J. Wojahn, P. Behrends
Gasoline Direct Injection and Turbo Charging – a new
opportunity for Downsizing, 11. Aachener Kolloquium
Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik 2002
/5/ M. Wirth; D. Zimmermann; R. Friedfeldt; J. Caine;
A. Schamel, Ford Motor Company; A. Storch; K. Ries-
Müller; K.-P. Gansert; G. Pilgram; R. Ortmann; G.
Würfel; J. Gerhardt, Robert Bosch GmbH: The Next
Generation of Gasoline Direct Injection : Improved
Fuel Economy and Optimized System Cost,
Global Powertrain Conference, Ann Arbor 2003
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