Internal Combustion Engines Essay

Internal Combustion Engines Essay

Length: 1402 words (4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Internal Combustion Engines


An internal-combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air
inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a
heat engine is an engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The
internal- combustion engine should be distinguished from the external-
combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, which
burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces
mechanical motion. Both basic types produce hot, expanding gases, which may then
be employed to move pistons, turn turbine rotors, or cause locomotion through
the reaction principle as they escape through the nozzle.

Most people are familiar with the internal-combustion reciprocating engine,
which is used to power most automobiles, boats, lawn mowers, and home generators.
Based on the means of ignition, two types of internal-combustion reciprocating
engines can be distinguished: spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition
engines. In the former, a spark ignites a combustible mixture of air and fuel;
in the latter, high compression raises the temperature of the air in the chamber
and ignites the injected fuel without a spark. The diesel engine is a
compression-ignition engine. This article emphasizes the spark-ignition engine.
The invention and early development of internal-combustion engines are
usually credited to three Germans. Nikolaus Otto patented and built (1876) the
first such engine; Karl Benz built the first automobile to be powered by such an
engine (1885); and Gottlieb Daimler designed the first high-speed internal-
combustion engine (1885) and carburetor. Rudolf Diesel invented a successful
compression-ignition engine (the diesel engine) in 1892.

The operation of the internal-combustion reciprocating engine employs
either a four-stroke cycle or a two-stroke cycle. A stroke is one continuous
movement of the piston within the cylinder.

In the four-stroke cycle, also known as the Otto cycle, the downward
movement of a piston located within a cylinder creates a partial vacuum. Valves
located inside the combustion chamber are controlled by the motion of a camshaft
connected to the crankshaft. The four strokes are called, in order of sequence,
intake, compression, power, and exhaust. On the first stroke the intake valve is
opened w...


... middle of paper ...


... energy within the
muffler before the exhaust gases are permitted to escape.

The power capacity of an engine depends on a number of characteristics,
including the volume of the combustion chamber. The volume can be increased by
increasing the size of the piston and cylinder and by increasing the number of
cylinders. The cylinder configuration, or arrangement of cylinders, can be
straight, or in-line (one cylinder located behind the other); radial (cylinders
located around a circle); in a V (cylinders located in a V configuration); or
opposed (cylinders located opposite each other). Another type of internal-
combustion engine, the Wankel engine, has no cylinders; instead, it has a rotor
that moves through a combustion chamber.

An internal-combustion engine must also have some kind of transmission
system to control and direct the mechanical energy where it is needed; for
example, in an automobile the energy must be directed to the driving wheels.
Since these engines are not able to start under a load, a transmission system
must be used to "disengage" the engine from the load during starting and then to
apply the load when the engine reaches its operating speed.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Internal Combustion Engines On The Basic Principle Essay

- The internal combustion engine operates on the basic principle as its name implies, internal combustion engines have four-stroke four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine: (1) Intake stroke / exhaustion (2) The compression stroke (3) Power / expansion stroke and (4) Exhaust stroke 1 intake stroke: The first stroke internal combustion engine is also known as the suction stroke because the piston moves to the maximum volume position (downward direction in the cylinder) create a pressure drop....   [tags: Internal combustion engine, Diesel engine]

Powerful Essays
3279 words (9.4 pages)

Internal Combustion Engines Essays

- Internal combustion engines gain repelling force by high pressure, which composed of combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber. Depending on this repelling force ,piston starts to move and it supplies the engine power to the required mechanical elements so, runs the vehicle. This is the working principle of internal combustion engines. In other words, internal combustion engines are the machines, which turn fuel’s chemical energy before turning mechanical energy. Combustion occurs inside of the engine that is why, they are called Internal Combustion Engines....   [tags: combustion chamber, petroleum, diesel]

Powerful Essays
1804 words (5.2 pages)

internal combustion engines of the future Essay

- Internal Combustion Engines for the Future Horst Schulte, Martin Wirth Ford Motor Company ABSTRACT Future internal combustion engines for light duty applications will have to cope with a very complex set of customer, legal and business requirements. Customers are expecting further improvements in durability, reliability, drivability, fuel economy, and cost of ownership. Legal requirements are focused on significant emission and fuel consumption reductions. Additional manufacturing cost reductions will be essential to maintain, or better grow the business in a very competitive environment....   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
3352 words (9.6 pages)

Essay about Internal Combustion Engines

- Most motor vehicles today use an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to give them power to drive down the road; ICEs are a form of a heat engine. Gasoline is burned to push a piston, which in return forces the car down the road. As the gas in the cylinder is ignited and expanded it forces the piston down the shaft. The force is carried through piston, which is connected to a crankshaft. The force moves through the transmission, down the driveshaft, and out the tires. The Otto Cycle is used to turn as much heat into the driving force as possible....   [tags: physics internal combustion engine]

Free Essays
524 words (1.5 pages)

Essay on Alternatives To Internal-combustion Engines

- In the past decade there has been a great deal of worrying about what will happen when the world’s oil supply becomes depleted. The main reason for concern is that almost all of the automobiles in use now require an oil based gasoline to run their internal-combustion engines. In the next few decades it is predicted that all of the world’s oil will have already been mined, and combustion engines will be unable to function. For this reason many companies such as Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Chrysler, Toyota, BMW, and others have started to create engines that do not require oil based gasoline....   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
943 words (2.7 pages)

Internal Combustion Engines Essay

- Internal Combustion Engines An internal-combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a heat engine is an engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The internal- combustion engine should be distinguished from the external- combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, which burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces mechanical motion....   [tags: Engine Cars Mechanics Essays]

Powerful Essays
1402 words (4 pages)

How a Gas Turbine Engine Works Essay

- The invention of internal combustion engines in the early 19th century has led to the discovery of utilisation of cheap energy that is petroleum and this enabled the world to develop and progress into the modern world today. Humans were able to accomplish more work done with little manual labour, using internal combustion engines powered by fossil fuels. Internal combustion engine are mechanical power devices that convert heat energy to mechanical energy with the combustion process taking place in a system boundary (Rolle, 2005)....   [tags: internal combustion engines, energy]

Powerful Essays
1201 words (3.4 pages)

Essay on Small Engine Repair

- ... Anyone could take from months to years to master all of the techniques required to be a small engine mechanic. Marine and motorcycle mechanics require more on the job training and experience than outdoor equipment. For more training the employer will send the new employee to a training camp that will last about 2 weeks. The new employee will be taught by one of the best in the business and use the best technology around. Small engine mechanics are not the highest paying job because the material that they are working on does not cost that much....   [tags: mechanics, internal combustion engines]

Powerful Essays
1921 words (5.5 pages)

Chemistry and Technology in Biodiesel Essay

- ... The diesel engine was originally intended to run on bio-fuel such as vegetable oil, rather than the petroleum-based diesel fuels mainly used today. Therefore society did not know what it was like to run petroleum-based diesel fuel before biodiesel was invented. Biodiesel gives a cleaner diesel fuel to run in vehicles. It does not give off the bad pollutions like a petroleum-based diesel fuel when burned. Therefore it is affecting society in a positive way, by not polluting the air. The resources to make biodiesel are organic, it is a renewable resource so, practically the resources will never run out to make the fuel so resources do not affect the fuel from being made....   [tags: cleaner fuels for internal combustion engines]

Free Essays
523 words (1.5 pages)

Hybrid Cars And Combustion Engines Essay

- In today’s society the people of the world are at a constant battle on how to make the world we live in a better and safer environment. One of the most argued topic is whether we should update our technology and start driving hybrid/ electric cars or continue using a combustion engine. Both Hybrid cars and combustion engine cars are operated in different ways. Also, the prices for a vehicle with a single energy source has a higher cost for operation purposes and maintenance fees. However, the biggest comparison between these two sources is the a combustion engine contributes to more pollution than the hybrid car does....   [tags: Internal combustion engine, Electric vehicle]

Powerful Essays
1092 words (3.1 pages)