Grade Retention Essay example

Grade Retention Essay example

Length: 3003 words (8.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

     Grade retention, better known as “staying back”, “being held back” or “repeating”, has been the topic of much debate within the educational system. The controversy which surrounds this long-standing issue has been reinforced by such topics as the recent endorsement of academic standards. Research indicates that “the rate of retention has increased by approximately 40% in the last 20 years with as many as 15% of all American students held back each year and 30-50% held back at least once before ninth grade” (Dawson, 1998). These discouraging statistics pose copious problems within a school system. The difficulties can be appreciated at the organizational level, as well as inside the classroom and, most troubling, within the individual students. The consequences, both positive and negative, reverberate throughout the school system. Grades retention is an issue which requires a prodigious amount of examination and should be considered carefully and thoroughly.
     Formally, grade retention is defined as the practice of requiring a student who has been in a given grade level for a full school year to return at that level for a subsequent year (Jackson, 1975). Unofficially, the practice is employed as a tool to enhance the academic or developmental growth for students who are unable to meet the curriculum requirements due to a variety of reasons. These reasons can include decreased cognitive functioning, physical immaturity, social-emotional difficulties and failure to pass standardized assessments. A child may be considered for retention if he has poor academic skills, is small in stature, is the youngest in the class, has moved frequently, has been absent repeatedly, does poorly on prescreening assessments or has limited English-language skills (Robertson, 1997). Additionally, the typical profile of a retained child is more likely to reveal an elementary school-aged student who is a black or Hispanic male with a late birthday, developmental delay, attentional problems, low socioeconomic status, single-parent household with a parent who either does not or cannot intervene on behalf of the child (Robertson, 1997; Mattison, 2000). Also seen in retained children are the predictive health factors of hearing and speech impairments, low birth weight, enuresis and exposure to cigarette smoke within the home (Byrd...


... middle of paper ...


...ommended, what should parents do? ERIC
Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Champaign, IL.

Parker, Dennis R. (2001). Social promotion or retention? Leadership, 30 (4),12-16.

Jackson, G. (1975). The research evidence on the effects of grade retention. Review of
Educational Research, 45, 613-635.

Holmes, C. T. (1989). Synthesis of recent research on nonpromotion: A five-year follow-up.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American education research Association, San Francisco, CA.

Natale, J. A. (1991). Rethinking grade retention. Educational Digest, 56 (9), 30-34.

Slavin, Robert E., Karweit, N., & Wasik, B. Preventing early school failure: What works?
Educational Leadership, 50 (4).

Darling-Hammond, Linda. (1998). Avoiding both grade retention and social promotion. The
School Administrator, 48-53.

Byrd, Robert S., & Weitzman, Michael L. (1994). Predictors of early grade retention among
children in the United States. Pediatrics, 93 (3), 481-488.

Mattison, Richard E. (2000). School Consultation: A review of research on issues unique to
the school environment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolscent Psychiatry,

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Effects Of Grade Retention Essay

- Introduction Grade retention which is better known as ‘staying back’, ‘repeating’ or ‘being held back’, refers to the practice of having a student return to a particular grade level for a subsequent year after having been at that level a full school year. (Wu et al, 2010). The purpose of this paper will be to answer the research question “What are the effects of grade retention?” based on high schools in the United Sates of America. Statistically, with as many as 15% of all American students held back each year and 30-50% held back at least once before ninth grade, the rate of retention has increased by approximately 40% in the last 20years (Wu et al, 2010)....   [tags: Educational Issues]

Strong Essays
916 words (2.6 pages)

A Brief Note On Social Promotion And Retention Essay

- Social promotion and retention have both been used in education as a method to help lower performing students catch up to their peers. While both strategies are used with good intentions, research has shown that neither actually helps a student to be successful in their educational career. That leaves one to wonder if neither social promotion nor retention is the correct answer, then what is the best answer for a lower achieving student who is not ready for the next grade level. “Social promotion is the practice of promoting students to the next grade even though they have not acquired minimum competencies expected of that grade” (Aldridge, 2014)....   [tags: Education, High school, Student, Grade retention]

Strong Essays
1586 words (4.5 pages)

Grade Retention Essay example

- Grade retention, better known as “staying back”, “being held back” or “repeating”, has been the topic of much debate within the educational system. The controversy which surrounds this long-standing issue has been reinforced by such topics as the recent endorsement of academic standards. Research indicates that “the rate of retention has increased by approximately 40% in the last 20 years with as many as 15% of all American students held back each year and 30-50% held back at least once before ninth grade” (Dawson, 1998)....   [tags: essays research papers]

Strong Essays
3003 words (8.6 pages)

Grade Retention Is Linked With A Child 's Socio Emotional Difficulties Essay

- Grade Retention is linked with a child’s socio-emotional difficulties. Certain Studies have discovered that children who had repeated a grade, in comparison to matched non-retained students, indicated poorer social adjustment, more harmful attitudes towards school, more problem actions, lower achievement, and a lesser amount of frequent attendance, even though other studies have established fewer transformations. Retention is a debatable topic, and has been for many years; Some parents think that it will help their child and make them more prepared, when it damages a child of any age....   [tags: High school, Middle school, Elementary school]

Strong Essays
2255 words (6.4 pages)

Supporting Academic Improvements Among Sixth Grade Students At Risk For Retention

- In the article Supporting Academic Improvements among eighth-grade students at-risk for retention: an action research, Mason and McMahon (2009) suggest nearly 64% of participants showed academic improvement in such program. Because middle school students are especially susceptible to negative effects of changes, high school transition programs are beginning to be explored. Although there is not a lot of research exploration or results known about these types of programs they are definitely something worth being examined....   [tags: High school, Education, College]

Strong Essays
1221 words (3.5 pages)

Mandatory Retention: Good or Bad? Essay

- Put yourself into the shoes of an innocent third-grade student trying your hardest to learn in school and please the adults in your life. You do well in most subjects but struggle with reading. Now you're being told you must repeat the third-grade because you scored 'not proficient' on the reading portion of the MEAP, despite doing your very best. Your friends will all move on to the fourth grade. Now you’ll have to relearn everything in the third grade because you struggled with reading, and only reading....   [tags: literacy rates and assessment]

Strong Essays
861 words (2.5 pages)

Graduation Speech : The Retention

- Kimberly Bushong Skyler Meeks ENG106 17 June 2015 Retention in Kindergarten is Not Beneficial In the Long Run Schools in today’s society are being pressured for increased performance, legislation, and policies regarding grade level promotion standards. With this influx of pressure on our schools, the result has been a call to end social promotion and an emphasis on grade retention as the educational remedy for underachieving children. Among children with Star Wars, SpongeBob, and Dora the Explorer backpacks who will walk from kindergarten into first grade this fall, some will only watch as their classmates move forward in their elementary school careers....   [tags: High school, Educational years, Student]

Strong Essays
1242 words (3.5 pages)

School Retention and Reading Intervention in Early Elementary School Essay

- The last few years have seen an increase of attention concerning academic accountability and the emphasis on social promotion. The U. S. Department of Education (1999) reported, “Neither social promotion or holding kids back without help is a successful strategy for improving learning” (p. 4). This push for change has set into motion the question, does retention in the early years account for substantial academic development. “Efficiency of instruction is important for all children and critical for children at risk for reading failure, who may have more to learn in less time than their peers” (Musti-Rao & Cartledge, 2007, p.13)....   [tags: education, improving learning ]

Strong Essays
2426 words (6.9 pages)

Social Promotion VS. Retention Essay

- Social Promotion VS. Retention Abstract Social promotion and retention are used for various reasons. Retention is implemented when students have not met the general requirements to begin the next grade. The question that will be addressed is how do social promotion and retention differ. The overall meaning of both will be addressed to give the reader a better understanding of the two. Social promotion is the practice of promoting a student to the next grade level even if the minimum academic factors have not been satisfied....   [tags: Essays Papers]

Strong Essays
1857 words (5.3 pages)

Social Promotion or Retention: The Only choices for failing students? Essay

- Social Promotion or Retention: The Only choices for failing students. How to help students who fail, or students who do not achieve up to a certain academic standard, is an issue that probably goes back to the beginning of levels of school for students to progress through. In the U.S. it goes back to the 1840’s where age-graded schools began. In those times children who did not meet a certain standard were retained, or they repeated that grade. Rates of grade retention are difficult to trace in the past as well as currently....   [tags: essays papers]

Strong Essays
1274 words (3.6 pages)