Formally, grade retention is defined as the practice of requiring a student who has been in a given grade level for a full school year to return at that level for a subsequent year (Jackson, 1975). Unofficially, the practice is employed as a tool to enhance the academic or developmental growth for students who are unable to meet the curriculum requirements due to a variety of reasons. These reasons can include decreased cognitive functioning, physical immaturity, social-emotional difficulties and failure to pass standardized assessments. A child may be considered for retention if he has poor academic skills, is small in stature, is the youngest in the class, has moved frequently, has been absent repeatedly, does poorly on prescreening assessments or has limited English-language skills (Robertson, 1997). Additionally, the typical profile of a retained child is more likely to reveal an elementary school-aged student who is a black or Hispanic male with a late birthday, developmental delay, attentional problems, low socioeconomic status, single-parent household with a parent who either does not or cannot intervene on behalf of the child (Robertson, 1997; Mattison, 2000). Also seen in retained children are the predictive health factors of hearing and speech impairments, low birth weight, enuresis and exposure to cigarette smoke within the home (Byrd...
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...ommended, what should parents do? ERIC
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- Introduction Grade retention which is better known as ‘staying back’, ‘repeating’ or ‘being held back’, refers to the practice of having a student return to a particular grade level for a subsequent year after having been at that level a full school year. (Wu et al, 2010). The purpose of this paper will be to answer the research question “What are the effects of grade retention?” based on high schools in the United Sates of America. Statistically, with as many as 15% of all American students held back each year and 30-50% held back at least once before ninth grade, the rate of retention has increased by approximately 40% in the last 20years (Wu et al, 2010).... [tags: Educational Issues]
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- Grade retention, better known as “staying back”, “being held back” or “repeating”, has been the topic of much debate within the educational system. The controversy which surrounds this long-standing issue has been reinforced by such topics as the recent endorsement of academic standards. Research indicates that “the rate of retention has increased by approximately 40% in the last 20 years with as many as 15% of all American students held back each year and 30-50% held back at least once before ninth grade” (Dawson, 1998).... [tags: essays research papers]
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- Kimberly Bushong Skyler Meeks ENG106 17 June 2015 Retention in Kindergarten is Not Beneficial In the Long Run Schools in today’s society are being pressured for increased performance, legislation, and policies regarding grade level promotion standards. With this influx of pressure on our schools, the result has been a call to end social promotion and an emphasis on grade retention as the educational remedy for underachieving children. Among children with Star Wars, SpongeBob, and Dora the Explorer backpacks who will walk from kindergarten into first grade this fall, some will only watch as their classmates move forward in their elementary school careers.... [tags: High school, Educational years, Student]
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- The last few years have seen an increase of attention concerning academic accountability and the emphasis on social promotion. The U. S. Department of Education (1999) reported, “Neither social promotion or holding kids back without help is a successful strategy for improving learning” (p. 4). This push for change has set into motion the question, does retention in the early years account for substantial academic development. “Efficiency of instruction is important for all children and critical for children at risk for reading failure, who may have more to learn in less time than their peers” (Musti-Rao & Cartledge, 2007, p.13).... [tags: education, improving learning ]
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- Social Promotion or Retention: The Only choices for failing students. How to help students who fail, or students who do not achieve up to a certain academic standard, is an issue that probably goes back to the beginning of levels of school for students to progress through. In the U.S. it goes back to the 1840’s where age-graded schools began. In those times children who did not meet a certain standard were retained, or they repeated that grade. Rates of grade retention are difficult to trace in the past as well as currently.... [tags: essays papers]
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