Cultural Differences in Joint Ventures Essay

Cultural Differences in Joint Ventures Essay

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ESSAY TOPIC (1) :A joint venture is affected by the cultural distance between two partners. In what ways are joint ventures and types of international collaboration affected by cultural differences?



INDEX

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………2

What is culture?…………………………………………………………………2-3

The Cultural Orientation Model……………………………………………….4

The cultural Gap…………………………………………………………………5-6

Understanding Cultural Differences………………………………………….6

The Challenge of Cultural Success…………………………………………..7

Cross-cultural training as a solution…………………………………………8

The effectiveness of the cross cultural training programs………………8-9

Future Directions for Cross-Cultural Training and International Business
Assignments……………………………………………………………………..10.


Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..10

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………..11


INTRODUCTION

Since the end of World War II, international operations have become a reality for an increasing number of corporations. Many of these initial efforts began as simple export schemes to sell goods overseas to supplement domestic sales. Over time, however, international operations have become increasingly more complex: from joint-ventures to purchasing existing foreign firms to ‘green-field’ start-ups. While export operations usually require no more than extended business trips overseas, more complex international operations demand long-term assignments of key personnel outside their home-country. What would normally be considered routine business transactions in the home country can become very complicated when they are conducted between individuals and organizations from different cultures. In this essay we will examine how this cultural gap can affect international business and joint ventures.

What is culture?

The word 'culture' is often described in terms of concrete ideas or social artifacts. Gary R. Weaver describes some common conceptions such as "good taste," "art or music," or "something that people in exotic foreign lands had."1 However, culture in the context of international assignments relates to how people perceive the world and the influence this perception has on their actions. It is culture on the interpersonal level. Different cultures can perceive the same thing differently, which leads to miscommunication and misunderstanding when one crosses into another culture not their own.
We...


... middle of paper ...


...s: Software of the Mind, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill 1998) 4.
5.Ibid., 4.
6.Ibid., 4.
7.Paul E. Rohrlich, "Why Do We Study Intercultural Communication?," in Culture, Communication and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations, 2d ed., ed. Gary R. Weaver (Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Publishing, 1998), 84-87.
8.Ibid., 85.
9.Ibid., 85.
10. (Schneider & Barsoux 1997:1).
11. Satish P. Deshpande and Chockalingam Viswesvaran, "Is Cross-cultural Training of Expatriate Managers Effective: A Meta Analysis," International Journal of Intercultural Relations 16 (1992): 296.
12.Environments," in Culture, Communication and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations, 2d ed., ed. Gary R. Weaver (Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Publishing, 1998), 185-186.
13. Stewart J. Black and Mark Mendenhall, "Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review and a Theoretical Framework for Future Research," Academy of Management Review, No. 1 (1990), 132.
14. Deshpande and Viswesvaran, 301.
15. Rosalie L. Tung, "Selection and Training of Personnel for Overseas Assignments," Columbia Journal of World Business, (Spring 1981), 68-78.



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