Civil Rights Movement in the United States, was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African Americans and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites.
During the civil rights movement, individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws. Some believe that the movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and ended with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, there is still however some debate about when it began and whether it has ended yet. The civil rights movement has also been called the Black Freedom Movement, the Negro Revolution, and the Second Reconstruction.
Segregation was an attempt by white Southerners to separate the races in every sphere of life and to achieve supremacy over blacks. Segregation was often called the Jim Crow system. Segregation became common in Southern states following the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
By 1877 the Democratic Party had gained control of government in the Southern states, and these Southern Democrats wanted to reverse black advances made during Reconstruction. To that end, they began to pass local and state laws that specified certain places ?For Whites Only? and others for ?Colored.? Blacks had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. Over 75 years, Jim Crow signs went up to separate the races in every possible place.
The system of segregation also included the denial of voting rights, known as disfranchisement. Between 1890 and 1910 all Southern states passed laws imposing requirements for voting that were used to prevent blacks from voting, These requirements included: the ability to read and write, which disqualified the many blacks who had not had access to education; property ownership, something few blacks were able to acquire; and paying a poll tax, which was too great a burden on most Southern blacks, who were very poor. Because blacks could not vote, they were virtually powerless to prevent whites from segregating all aspects of Southern life.
Conditions for blacks in Northern states were somewhat better, up to 1910 only 10 percent of bl...
... middle of paper ...
...y?s administration and the Congress to pass the civil rights legislation proposed by Kennedy by planning a march in Washington for August 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered a moving address to an audience of more than 200,000 civil rights supporters. His ?I Have a Dream? speech .
Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963,and the new president, Lyndon Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. It prohibited segregation in public accommodations and discrimination in education and employment.
After the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the focus of the civil rights movement began to change. Martin Luther King, Jr., began to focus on poverty and racial inequality in the North. In 1965 he joined protests against school discrimination in Chicago and the following year he led marches against housing discrimination in the same city.
For many activists the civil rights movement ended in 1968 with the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. Others said it was over after the Selma march, because after Selma the movement stopped achieving major change. Some, especially blacks, argue that the movement is not over yet because the goal of full equality has not been achieved.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- "Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that." - - Martin Luther King, Jr. The Civil rights Movement helped people realize how powerful their voice can be, which changed America completely. One of those people who had a powerful voice was Martin Luther King, Jr. He was an inspiring and influential leader of the Civil Rights Movement. The quote above is just one of many inspirational comments made by Martin Luther King. The peaceful protests against racism, which this African-American man directed, often got responses of violent threats, beatings, and arrests.... [tags: Black Civil Rights in America]
1068 words (3.1 pages)
- In a Democracy the majority does not need any protection, because it is the majority which has control. However, as seen through history, even majorities can be tyrannical, and the minority needs protection from them. “Civil rights” is the term used when speaking of the privileges, immunities, and practices of freedom which are protected from violation by other citizens. That is the definition of civil rights, although when most people think of civil rights they instantly think it means black civil rights.... [tags: Black struggle for civil rights in America]
4775 words (13.6 pages)
- On June 25th 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled by a 5-4 vote that section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is unconstitutional due to the fact the coverage formula is no longer valid because it is based upon 40 year old data and that it no longer responds to current needs. Shelby County v Holder regards the constitutionality of two provisions section 4(b) and section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Section 5, of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 requires certain states to obtain federal preclearance before any state tries to implement any changes to their voting laws or practices.... [tags: Supreme Court of the United States, United States]
1030 words (2.9 pages)
- The Civil Rights Movement refers to the political, social, and economical struggle of African Americans to gain full citizenship and racial equality. Although African Americans began to fight for equal rights as early as during the days of slavery, the quest for equality continues today. Historians generally agree that Civil Rights Movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and ended with the passing of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. Despite the 14th and 15th constitutional amendments that guarantee citizenship and voting right regardless of race and religion, southern states, in practice, denied African Americans the right to vote by setting up literacy tests and charging a poll... [tags: Black Civil Rights Movement]
1720 words (4.9 pages)
- Although there was significant improvement in the lives of black people through the Success of the civil rights movement by the late 1960s, there were also some failures and aspects that the civil rights movement had not achieved. These failures were social, economical, political and cultural. These failures included the fact that some laws were not upheld. Black people saw this as an injustice and inconvenience and as a failure economically. There was unemployment to a certain degree amongst the black community, as over 10% of black people were unemployed.... [tags: 1960s Civil Rights Movement in America]
640 words (1.8 pages)
- For many years after the Civil War many African-Americans did not truly enjoy the freedoms that were granted to them by the US constitution. This was especially true in the southern states, because segregation flourished in the south wwhere African-Americans were treated as second class citizens. This racial segregation was characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.... [tags: Black Civil Rights Movement]
1633 words (4.7 pages)
- The 1960’s were a time of freedom, deliverance, developing and molding for African-American people all over the United States. The Civil Rights Movement consisted of black people in the south fighting for equal rights. Although, years earlier by law Africans were considered free from slavery but that wasn’t enough they wanted to be treated equal as well. Many black people were fed up with the segregation laws such as giving up their seats on a public bus to a white woman, man, or child. They didn’t want separate bathrooms and water fountains and they wanted to be able to eat in a restaurant and sit wherever they wanted to and be served just like any other person.... [tags: The Civil Rights Movement]
885 words (2.5 pages)
- Jesse Jackson is a famous Civil Rights leader, often considered to be one of the greatest. He believes that African Americans should get more political power. He fought for that power by being the second black American to run for President (the first was Congresswomen Shirley Chisholm in 1972 but wasn't a factor in the election). He was the first African-American to be a contender in a presidential election. Throughout the Civil Rights Movement he was always known as the man that TOOK action with what was given to him.... [tags: Black Civil Rights Movement]
929 words (2.7 pages)
- Civil Rights Movement: 1890-1900 1890: The state of Mississippi adopts poll taxes and literacy tests to discourage black voters. 1895: Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta Exposition speech, which accepts segregation of the races. 1896: The Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson the separate but equal treatment of the races is constitutional. 1900-1910 1900-1915: Over one thousand blacks are lynched in the states of the former Confederacy. 1905: The Niagara Movement is founded by W.E.B.... [tags: American Civil Rights Movement]
1125 words (3.2 pages)
- "Our problem today is that we have allowed the internal to become lost in the external" -Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Today's world is based on appearance, and most often the goal is not as important as the means by which it is achieved. Why is this such a 'problem?' Time after time, people come to find that they have wasted their lives working towards a goal which, in the end, was never worth all that work to begin with, or they realize that they could have gone about their actions differently.... [tags: Black struggle for civil rights in America]
710 words (2 pages)