Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Essay

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Essay

Length: 1686 words (4.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Introduction

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)

Stimulant drugs are widely used to treat the symptoms of ADHD. These stimulants dramatically reduce the hyperactivity of sufferers and improve their ability to focus, learn and work. Such medication may also improve physical coordination, for instance handwriting and sports. Research completed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that these medicines may also help children with an accompanying conduct disorder to control their impulsive, destructive behaviours. The three medications that have been proven by the NIMH to be most effective in both children and adults suffering from ADHD are: methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine or Dextrostat), and pemoline (Cylert). (NIMH 1999) Yet there is currently much research on the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as t...


... middle of paper ...


.... A comparison of the newer treatment options for ADHD. Formulary, 38 (1), pp. 38

Elia, J., Ambrosini, P.J., Rapoport, J.L. (1999). Treatment of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 56 pp. 530-533

Michelson, M.D., Albert J. Allen, M.D., Ph.D., Joan Busner, Ph.D., Charles Casat, M.D., David Dunn, M.D., Christopher Kratochvil, M.D., Jeffrey Newcorn, M.D., F. Randy Sallee, M.D., R. Bart Sangal, M.D., Keith Saylor, Ph.D., Scott West, M.D., Douglas Kelsey, M.D., Ph.D., Joachim Wernicke, M.D., Ph.D., Nancy J. Trapp, B.A., and Donald Harder, M.S. (2002). Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. American Psychiatric Association

Monastra, V., Monastra, D., George, S. (2002). Effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 27(4) pp. 231-249

National Institute of Mental Health (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Retrieved April 2, 2003 from www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm#adhd3

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Characteristics and Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

- The Characteristics and Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Missing Works Cited According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one-half of 1.6 million elementary school-aged children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) (Brown University Child and Adolescence Behavior Letter, 2001). The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1997) stated that ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, and boys are three times more likely to be affected by the disorder than girls....   [tags: ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder]

Free Essays
1238 words (3.5 pages)

Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- ... What Are The Criteria For Diagnosis Of This Disorder. This section of the paper will discuss the criteria for diagnosis of ADHD. While in doing so, such information will help one understand and get a better insight on the disorder. As the article mentions; teachers are not well equipped while in dealing with such children, if they do not know the symptoms (Buchoff, 1990). In the text a few symptoms or traits mentioned are as followed: hyperactivity, excessive movement, unexpected action, short attention span, lack of social skills, insubordinate and disruptive behavior, easy frustration, learning difficulties, variability in behavior, and coordination difficulties (Beugin, 1990)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1290 words (3.7 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- ... There are various medications that and help reduced symptoms. The editors of Healthline also suggest psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and support groups are also some examples of treatment options available to help someone cope with ADHD. Psychotherapy helps people with ADHD with “opening up about their feelings of coping with ADHD…and can helps them to handle relationships appropriately.” (Healthline) Behavior therapy helps people with ADHD with how to “better monitor their behaviors and then modify their behaviors appropriately.” (Healthline) *Click slide.* If you suspect that you or someone you know has ADHD, please talk with your doctor for a proper diagnosis and for more informatio...   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
887 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- ... Approximately 42.7% to 56% of children with ADHD met the criteria for disruptive behavior disorders as well (Schweitzer, 2010). Other common comorbid disorders for childhood ADHD are anxiety disorders and learning disabilities. Statistics suggest that those with ADHD are more susceptible to develop a substance abuse disorder. The problems that arise from children having ADHD can cause tremendous conflict between the children and his or her parents. Parents may not understand why academia is so difficult for their child and express it in unhealthy ways such as yelling or punishment for something that is not under the child’s control....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1127 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- ... This results in over-diagnosis. By contrast, children of parents from a poorer socioeconomic status tend to be less likely to present their children for diagnosis, resulting in an under-diagnosis for this segment. Treatment The advancement of pharmaceutical treatments for ADHD children has also contributed to potential diagnosis problems, though this form of treatment represents a major breakthrough as well. Pharmaceutical treatments with drugs that counter hyperactivity and contribute to improved focus, notably stimulant-based medications, have been determined to improve ADHD symptoms (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2012)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1474 words (4.2 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that effects approximately 9.5% of children in the United States. People with the disorder tend to have trouble keeping their attention focused on one thing and have a tendency to be very active and not be able to sit still. There are a variety of treatment methods for ADHD such as amphetamines, behavioral treatment, and others. I chose this topic because having gone through the process of being tested and diagnosed with ADHD I had a lot of questions that were not answered like, what is the best treatment method....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1039 words (3 pages)

Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- ... ADHD is normally diagnosed after a person has shown some or all of the symptoms of this disorder on a regular basis for at least six months. Once a child shows signs of the symptoms, the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual can be used to help further diagnosis of this disorder. This diagnostic standard that is given by the APA ensures that people are appropriately diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Using this standard throughout different communities in America helps determine the number of children who have this disorder, and how public health is affected by this condition....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1552 words (4.4 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- Controlling the Young Over the past years, there has been an increasing number in uncontrollable children. There has been an increasing number of hyperactive kids where it has been impossible for them to concentrate. Doctors have conducted studies and came up with a diagnosis of what is called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Something that was once known as just bad behavior has now become an actual mental disorder. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, data shows that “11% of school-age children in the U.S....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1374 words (3.9 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- ... Many of the disorders just shown can start in a person’s early childhood and can lead to a person’s adult hood which then can cause to have many complications. The effects of depression in adult hood can cause a changes in mood. Also many people may feel less energetic, experience a difference in sleep patterns, changes in their appetites may feel less hungry or may eat more then normally. Also a decline in physical health. To begin with, ADHD is a common neurobehavioral disorder most commonly diagnosed in many young children....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1127 words (3.2 pages)

Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- ... Symptoms related to the hyperactivity or impulsivity related category include; fidgeting and/or squirming especially when seated, inability to stay seated, excessive need to run and/or climb, unable to play/perform leisure tasks that require quiet or calm contexts, feels uncomfortable staying still, excessively talks, has trouble talking in turns during play and/or in conversation (APA, 2013). Prognosis The prognosis for people diagnosed with ADHD varies depending on the degree of the symptoms presented in each individual....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
797 words (2.3 pages)