Fascism was a totalitarian political movement that developed after 1919 as a reaction against the political and social changes brought about by World War 1 and the spread of socialism and communism. It flourished between 1919 and 1945 in several countries, mainly Germany, Spain, Italy, and Japan. Fascism is a form of totalitarian dictatorship that had ideals such as extreme nationalism, economic self sufficiency and military strength. The dictators abolished all opposition against them and basically took complete control of the lives of everyone in their country.
Benito Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism and premier of Italy from 1922-43 and ruling as a dictator from about 1925. In 1919 Mussolini and other veterans from the war founded a revolutionary, nationalistic group called the Fasci di Combattimento in Milan. His movement gained the support of many landowners in the lower Po valley, industrialists, and army officers. Fascist blackshirt squads carried on local civil was against Socialists, Communists, Catholics, and Liberals.
On Oct. 28, 1922, after the Fascists had marched on Rome, Mussolini secured a mandate from King Victor Emmanual lll to form a coalition government. In 1925-26, after a lengthy crisis with parliament he imposed a single party totalitarian dictatorship. In his new “corporate-state”, employers and workers were organized into party-controlled groups representing different sectors of the economy. The system preserver capitalism and expanded social services, but abolished free trade unions and the right to strike. He ended a half century of friction between the church and the state with the Lateran pacts with the Vatican in 1929. He also defied the League of Nations and conquered Ethiopia in 1935. This won him acclaim in almost every sector of the general public. His popularity declined after he sent troops to help General Franco in the Spanish Civil War, linked Italy to Nazi Germany, enacted anti-Jewish laws, and invaded Albania.
After a seers of military disasters in Greece and North Africa, the leaders of his party abandoned Mussolini. The king dismissed him on July 25, 1943, and had him arrested. The Germans rescued him and made him the leader of a brutal puppet Social Republic in northern Italy. In the final days of the war Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland with his mi...
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...ed an illusion of power, there was disorder behind that façade. The Nazi leaders under Hitler made up policies themselves, merely attaching onto ideas from Hitler while never receiving direct orders or directions from Hitler himself. The second or third in command could issue an action or an order by merely stating “The Führer’s will…” and would not be questioned or second guessed. Due to this chaotic form of organization, it can be surmised that this might have slowed Hitler’s plans down a bit. No one knew what anyone was doing. Hitler and Mussolini both had very similar techniques in achieving power; most likely due to the fact that Hitler had been inspired by Mussolini to take over the government. Both used the characteristic of fascism (the glorification of emotion) to take hold of the people in each country and impose their ideals upon. By manipulating the minds of people, Hitler and Mussolini both convinced their people that dictatorship would deliver them from all of their problems. This was not a hard task for Mussolini in Italy; Hitler did have some difficulties which slowed him down (being sentenced to jail, etc) and overall, the result was the same. Total dictatorship.
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