Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of
overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative
Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not
have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the
government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource
approach: first identifying the problem, which is racism then establishing the solution
The intent of Affirmative Action helps cut down discrimination in the work place
and in schools, despite the fact that some believe that affirmative action is a form of
reverse discrimination. In contrast, the first goal of Affirmative Action was to help
people who were poor or badly educated, elevating them to positions for which they were
not objectively qualified (Buckley 95). Cousens, author of Public Civil Rights Agencies
and Fair Employment indicates that the Affirmative Action techniques have the
advantage of not only persuading employers not to discriminate when hiring or accepting,
but to expand employment and educational opportunities for minority groups (22).
Therefore, Affirmative Action is legitimate because it does reduce discrimination in the
work place and related areas such as University acceptance of college students. In the
end, it should in no way be abolished.
However, Affirmative action is highly controversial. Right now Proposition 209,
in California which bans all programs involving race and sex preferences run by the state,
has passed but it will not be put into total action due to some questions of
constitutionality (Ayres 34). The law will start slowly first, ending Affirmative Action in
the schools of California, leading up to the abolishment of Affirmative Action all
together. An argument was declared by Mark Rosenbaum of the Southern California
Branch of the American Civil Liberties Union, “ Proposition 209 should be
declared unconstitutional because it singles out women and minorities and, at a time
when discrimination still exists, sought to preclude them from attaining constitutionally
guaranteed right, like jobs and schooling.” (Ayres 34). As R...
... middle of paper ...
...Maybe the world hasn’t exactly found equality as a
result, but with Affirmative Action, the world is a lot closer to equality than without it.
Applebome, Peter. “Affirmative Action Ban Changes a Law School.” New York Times
2 July 1997: a14.
Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. “Affirmative Action Battle Moves to Courts.” New York
Times 1 Dec. 1996: 34.
Benac, Nancy. “Clinton Defends Preference Programs, Backs Reforms.” Associated
Press Writer. <http.//sddt.com/files/librarywire/dn95_07_19_09.html>. 19
Buckley, William F., Jr. “The Two Sides.” National Review 14 Oct., 1996: 95
Cousens, Frances. Public Civil Rights Agencies and Fair Employment. New York:
Hair, Penda D. “Color Blind-or Just Blind?” Nation 14 Oct. 1996: 12.
“Once to Every Man.” National Review 16 June, 1997: 12.
Phillips, D. Rhys. Equality in Employment. Ottawa: Canadian Gov., 1985: 285
Porter, Horace. “Affirmative Action: 1960’s Dreams, 1990’s Realities.” Chronicle of
Higher Education. 29 Nov. 1996: B6
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Affirmative Action Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource approach: first identifying the problem, which is racism then establishing the solution (Phillips 67).... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1273 words (3.6 pages)
- Affirmative Action- The results When the topic of affirmative action is brought up, we immediately think when whites and black were segregated and how blacks fought for equality. However affirmative action is more than allowing blacks and whites and any other minorities attend the same school. Affirmative action is about permitting not only blank men and women, but also other racial minorities that were for times excluded, to have a “fair chance” at education and employment. Affirmative action played a great role in the civil right movements, as it was the stepping stone towards equality in the United States.... [tags: Affirmative action, Discrimination]
727 words (2.1 pages)
- Affirmative Action Affirmative action is a deliberate effort to provide full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas for women, minorities, and individuals belonging to other traditionally disadvantaged groups. As an issue of today's society, affirmative action requires corporations, universities and other organizations to establish programs designed to ensure that all applicants are treated fairly. It also places a burden of proof on the providers of opportunities; to some degree, the providers must be able to demonstrate that their granting of opportunities to white males is not discriminatory.... [tags: Affirmative Action]
1138 words (3.3 pages)
- Affirmative action caught in tale of the two cities of Boston, Massachusetts and Denver, Colorado. Since the late 1980s, race and sex-based contracting preference programs in the U.S. cities have faced significant challenges in the courts (Rubin). On February 7th, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino announced his plan to eliminate a 15 year old program that required bidders on city construction contracts to subcontract 15% of work to minority-owned business enterprises and 5% to women-owned firms (Rubin).... [tags: Affirmative Action]
870 words (2.5 pages)
- Affirmative action- a plan to offset past discrimination in employing or educating women, blacks etc. (Websters New World Dictionary.) The history of affirmative action has its roots in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and stems from the United States Supreme case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. In 1965, President Linden B. Johnson issued Executive Order #11246 at Howard University that required federal contractors to undertake affirmative action to increase the number of minorities that they employ.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
782 words (2.2 pages)
- Though Affirmative Action is a current controversial issue, it is far from new; its decree has been long in the making. Perhaps it originates from amendments 13-15, the series of amendments that outlawed slavery, guaranteed equal protection under the law, and forbid racial discrimination when voting, respectively (Sykes 1). The Supreme Court’s decision in 1896, in the case of Plessy V. Ferguson, mandated separate but equal treatment for African Americans (Sykes 1). However, in 1954, the Supreme Court’s decision from Brown v.... [tags: Government Affirmative Action Essays]
3550 words (10.1 pages)
- â€œThe â€˜under representationâ€™ of any racial group, it was decided, was evidence of discriminationâ€?(Guernsey). Affirmative action did not start out as a reverse discrimination towards white males, but it was meant to help everybody, but failed nearly completely after a time of which it was affected. The original concept of affirmative action excluded any mention of preference. â€œLaunched during the late 1960s by the administration of President Richard M. Nixon, affirmative action programs call for guidelines and goals in the hiring of racial and ethnic minorities, the handicapped, and women.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1662 words (4.7 pages)
- Affirmative action, is it still needed in this day and age. Has it accomplished what it was supposed to. Many people say that if America concentrated on programs that provided assistance to the most needy then they would have the opportunities that affirmative action is trying to provide. By going into the ghettos of our cities and stimulating business, thereby, promoting economic growth, the disenfranchised will reap the benefits. Have they been reaping the benefits of affirmation action. As a nation devoted to equality, the United States must do away with unproductive race-dividing policies.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
2649 words (7.6 pages)
- There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise have had. These gains have led to very real changes.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1304 words (3.7 pages)
- In 1997, three students were denied admission into the University of Michigan. Each of them, in turn, sued the school, charging them with discrimination. In one of the cases, a student was denied admission into Michigan’s law school. Chicago Sun-Times writers Dave Newbart and Kate Grossman reported that last Monday, June 23, 2003, in a 5-4 majority ruling, swing vote Justice Sandra Day O’Connor judged for the school maintaining their right to consider the race of their applicants. In a second decision, the court ruled that they supported the University’s use of race in their admissions policy, but use of a point system was unconstitutional under the fourteenth amendment (Equal Protection Cl... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1066 words (3 pages)