Acid Base Extraction Essay

Acid Base Extraction Essay

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Acid Base Extraction


The purpose of this laboratory assignment was two-fold, first, we were to
demonstrate the extraction of acids and bases, finally, determining what
unknowns were present. Second, we were to extract caffeine from tea. These two
assignment will be documented in two separate entities.

Introduction: Acid/base extraction involves carrying out simple acid/base
reactions in order to separate strong organic acids, weak organic acids neutral
organic compounds and basic organic substances. The procedure for this
laboratory assignment are on the following pages.

3) Separation of Carboxylic Acid, a Phenol and a Neutral Substance

     The purpose of this acid/base extraction is to separate a mixture of
equal parts of benzoic acid(strong acid) and 2-naphthanol(weak base) and 1,4-
dimethoxybenzene(neutral) by extracting from tert-butylmethyl ether(very
volatile).The goal of this experiment was to identify the three components in
the mixture and to determine the percent recovery of each from the mixture.

4) Separation of a Neutral and Basic Substance

     A mixture of equal parts of a neutral substance containing either
naphthalene or benzoin and a basic substance containing either 4-chloroaniline
or ethyl 4-aminobenzoate were to be separated by extraction from an ether
solution. Once the separation took place, and crystallization was carried out,
it became possible to determine what components were in the unknown mixture, by
means of a melting point determination.

Results

Procedure Observations
Inference

Dissolve 3.05g Phenol Mixture was a golden-Neutral acid
in 30ml brown/yellow color t-butyl methyl ether in
Erlenmeyer flask and transfer mixture to 125ml separatory funnel using little
ether to complete the transfer

Add 10 ml of water               Organic layer=mixture
                         aqueous layer=water(clear)

Add 10 ml saturated aqueous           Sodium bicarbonate          NaHCO3
dissolves in solution sodium bicarbonate           ...


... middle of paper ...


...sp;      Caffeine
salicylate is a Pasteur pipette while the     isolated(white color)     
     formed. beaker is in the ice bath then vacuum filter.
Caffeine beaker:     51.61g
           -51.56g
               .05g = 50mg

% yield = .05g x 100% = 20%
      .25g

Caffeine salicylate:     17.198g
           -17.036g
                .062g

% yield = .062g x 100% = 25%
      .25g

Conclusion

     According to the HPLC graph that follows, my product was very pure. The
actual melting point of caffeine salicylate is 137 degree(C), my product was
found to have a melting point of 138 degrees (C). As before, of course this
experiment was not done completely error-free, the error is due almost entirely
on human error.

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