Can intelligence be measured? Does an IQ test actually measure a person’s intelligence? Does a high score indicate a genius? Does a low score indicate stupidity or merely ignorance? These questions have been asked over and over again by psychiatrists and scientists alike, but to date there are no clear answers. These questions cannot be answered without first defining what is meant by the term intelligence. Once intelligence has been defined then it should be easy to answer these questions; however, multiple definitions of the word tend to lead to further confusion.
In a 1921 symposium entitled “Intelligence and Its Measurement”, psychiatrists were asked to define intelligence and their answers varied greatly. One described intelligence as “equivalent to the capacity to learn.” Other definitions included “the ability to adapt adequately to relatively new situations”, “the capacity to learn or profit from experience”, and “the knowledge that an individual possesses.” And one stated that there was no simple definition to the word because “intelligence involves two factors- the capacity for knowledge and knowledge possessed” (Sternberg & Detterman, 1986, p.39-40).
Dictionaries add still more definitions: Funk & Wagnall’s defines intelligence as “The faculty of perceiving and comprehending meaning; mental quickness; active intellect; understanding” , while Webster’s defines it as “the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations; the skilled use of reason.” While some of these definitions are similar, none of them are exactly the same.
The definition of intelligence becomes even more complicated when one considers the work of Howard Gardner. Gardner claims that intelligence can not be defined with one definition because intelligence is not one thing. Gardner purports that there are eight different categories of intelligence: musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. He is currently considering adding a ninth category of intelligence: existential (Carvin).
Gardner believes that all people excel in at least one category of intelligence. However, he cautions teachers using the multiple intelligence approach in the classroom: “Do not label kids as ‘spatial, but not linguistic’ or, for that...
... middle of paper ...
... when they arrive the store is out of bread. The children are then asked what they would do with points only being scored for the answer of going to another store; however, for children living in large urban ghetto areas the most popular answer has traditionally been to go home. Researchers argue that, considering the environment that these children live in, going home would be a much more intelligent decision than attempting to go to another store (Lawler, 1978, p.34).
Can intelligence be measured? Does an IQ test actually measure a person’s intelligence? The answers all depend on who you ask.
Block, N. & Dworkin, G. (1976). The iq controversy. New York: Random House.
Carvin, A. EdWeb: Exploring technology and school reform. [On-Line]. Available: http://edweb.gsn.org/edref.mi.intro.html
Durie, R. The building tool room: an interview with Howard Gardner. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.newhorizons.org/trm_gardner.html
Lawler, J. (1978). Iq, heritability, and racism. New York: International Publishers.
Sternberg, R. & Detterman, D. (1986). What is intelligence. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Psychologists have differed on the definition for intelligence and how to measure intelligence. In this paper the definition of intelligence and how it is measured will be discussed by comparing and contrasting the two intelligence tests and two achievement tests chosen from the Mental Measurement Yearbook. The intelligence tests chosen were the Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (PTONI) and the Test of Memory and Learning, 2nd ed., (TOMAL-2) and the achievement tests chosen were the Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI) and the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd ed.... [tags: Intelligence]
1766 words (5 pages)
- This paper will briefly explore intelligence from the standpoint of testing, measurement, and application of theory. In the first section, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) will be reviewed, along with an evaluation of measured intelligence. In the second section, an application of the two-factor theory of intelligence will be examined as it pertains to the WAIS-IV; specifically the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model will be used. Additional information may be included as it pertains to the topic being discussed, or to clarify relevant issues.... [tags: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale]
1106 words (3.2 pages)
- William Stern in the 1912 took the mental age of an individual, divided it by the chronological age and obtained the ratio, which he called as an intelligence quotient. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score used to express the relative intelligence of a person. In the modern society with high competition in different areas intelligence tests are widely used. IQ tests starting to appear in job interviews as a part of the application process as well. This is still a controversial issue about whether IQ tests should be included in the employability process.... [tags: Tests, Jobs, Skills]
521 words (1.5 pages)
- “Standardized testing is one of the most passionately debated education topics in America” (Baxter, pg. 1). They became much more prevalent after the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act mandated annual testing across the United States. Standardized tests are used to assess students and teachers, however some people object the idea that the performance on a single test is a valid measure of what a student has learned, or what their teacher has taught them. In this paper I will argue that relying solely on standardized testing for student placement damages education.... [tags: achievement, bias, education ]
1347 words (3.8 pages)
- Introduction: In this world, there are many different individuals who are not only different in demographics but also different neurologically. Due to an immense amount of people it is important to first understand each individual, in order, to better understand them and to help them when it comes to certain areas such as education, the work force, and etc…. For this reason psychologists have aimed to further understand individuals through the use of psychological assessments. This paper aims to examine a particular assessment tool, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (Fifth Edition), which measures both intelligence and cognitive abilities (Roid, 2003).... [tags: intelligence assessment, scores]
1693 words (4.8 pages)
- High School juniors and seniors are frequently asked what they plan to do for their college education. While discussing their future in college, many relevant topics come into the conversation. One may talk about their grades and classes, paying for school, and their test scores. All of these have a very important impact on what a student will do for the next few years of their life. Unfortunately, in our society, test scores are an extremely important factor in the college admissions process.... [tags: Standardized Testing Essays]
1775 words (5.1 pages)
- Dawn Neely-Randall has been teaching in Ohio schools for the past 24 years, but this past year one thing was different. With the development of the Common Core State standards in Ohio, the state’s students had to take a pilot version of the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers test on top of the standard Ohio Achievement Tests. Some may think that doesn’t sound like a big deal, but it amounted to an overwhelming 8 hours of testing in one week for Neely-Randall’s fifth grade students.... [tags: Education, Standardized test, Test, Psychometrics]
1034 words (3 pages)
- There are many different positions in an organization that require different knowledge, skills and abilities. Supervisory and management positions encompass more than just technical knowledge, skill and expertise in their given area, but being leaders over others. This is of interest to organizations in having leaders who are able to motivate, understand and get their teams to work together. Many organizations are looking to improve their performance and productivity through finding and placing the right people in leadership positions.... [tags: leadership, emotions, experience, performance]
2100 words (6 pages)
- The recent works of theorists such as Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg, John Mayer and Peter Salovery along with many others, are beginning to take the meaning of intelligence and learning from traditional mainstream monopoly of intelligence. This description is very broad; but the measurement of intelligence has been very narrow before which didn’t allow for others to be included as intelligent. It is important to take the definition of intelligences and to give that meaning back to the learner and those that work closely with the learner for learning success.... [tags: Logic, Emotions, Theorists]
1179 words (3.4 pages)
- Intelligence is a very broad subject although it seems easily defined. A great amount of different meanings are given to intelligence as a concept from various cultures and sciences. Throughout history psychologists and sociologist have been trying to devise a way to reveal the level of intellect animals or humans possess. However this quest might not have a definitive answer. Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it. Research in the field of animal intelligence is essential to understand the more complex aspects of human intelligence.... [tags: essays research papers]
1536 words (4.4 pages)