The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a highly disruptive species that can, and has played a distinctive role in the lives of many organisms. Included in these organisms are various deciduous trees and shrubs, wildlife species that share the same environment, and even humans. The gypsy moth destroys the beauty of woodlands via defoliation, alters ecosystems and wildlife habitats, and disrupts our own lives. It should therefore come as no surprise that the U.S. Department of Agriculture and many other agencies have taken huge steps to help diminish populations of this small, yet persistent species. In an effort to control these overwhelming populations, five chemical control agents have been used to suppress and/or eradicate the gypsy moth. Following, is a discussion of each chemical and their potentially hazardous effects on humans.
The first chemical control agent is Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (B.t.k.); a bacteria isolated from diseased silk worms and flour moths. The potency of B.t.k. varies among insects and readily destroys lepidopteran larvae within approximately one hour of ingestion. More than 1 million pounds of B.t.k. is applied annually in the U.S., primarily via aerial spraying, but also by ground spraying. It does not persist long in the environment (losing its activity by 50% within 1-3 days), has not been seen to replicate in gypsy moth predators, and does not accumulate in the soil.
There seems to be a low level of concern regarding human B.t.k. exposure, although B.t.k. formulations have caused eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritations, especially in ground workers. Some claims reveal that a majority of these workers were not equipped with ...
... middle of paper ...
8) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private
Forestry, Summary: Final Environmental Impact Statement, Radnor, PA, 1995.
9) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service, Gypsy Moth Suppression and Eradication Projects, 1985.
10) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service, Gypsy Moth Managment in the U.S.: a cooperative approach.
Environmental Impact Statement; Appendix F Human Health Risk Assessment, 1995.
11) Wargo, Phillip M., Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth: How it Hurts Your Tree, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, No. 223, 1974.
12) White, William B., Hubbard, Schneeberger, and Raimo, Technological Developments in
Aerial Spraying, U.S. Department of Agriculture, No. 535, 1974.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The battle against death, while can be portrayed as magnificent, is ultimately pathetic and insignificant. Like a boulder tipping precariously off a cliff, one can exhibit the ardent desire to survive, yet against the fragility and impermanence of life, this desire is a pitiful effort in the face of impending failure. The hopelessness of such a situation is depicted in “The Death of the Moth” by Virginia Woolf, in which the moth incessantly endeavors to overcome the irresolvable dilemma of breaking through the barriers that contain it and visit the outside world.... [tags: The Death of the Moth, Virginia Woolf]
725 words (2.1 pages)
- Though it is common practice to “never judge a book by its cover”, oftentimes the cover will give a glimpse of what is to come. In literal terms, the cover of the book contains the title, perhaps one of the most important pieces of information about any literary work. Frequently the title will give an indication about the main character, or perhaps the leading metaphor. Thus is the case with Moth Smoke by Mohsin Hamid, a novel about a banker in Lahore, Pakistan who falls in love with his best friend’s wife, and plummets into a difficult lifestyle.... [tags: moth smoke, mohsin hamid]
899 words (2.6 pages)
- ‘The Death of the Moth” by Virginia Woolf Death is a difficult subject for anyone to speak of, although it is a part of everyday life. In Virginia Woolf’s “The Death of the Moth”, she writes about a moth flying about a windowpane, its world constrained by the boundaries of the wood holding the glass. The moth flew, first from one side, to the other, and then back as the rest of life continued ignorant of its movements. At first indifferent, Woolf was eventually moved to pity the moth. This story shows that life is as strange and familiar as death to us all.... [tags: Virginia Woolf Death Moth Essays]
760 words (2.2 pages)
- The Role of Men in D.H. Lawrence's Virgin and the Gypsy The role of the male characters in The Virgin and the Gypsy by D.H. Lawrence can best be summed up by Yvette's reaction to her sister's philosophy of marriage: 'I'm not sure one shouldn't have one's fling till one is twenty-six , and then give in and marry!' This was Lucille's philosophy, learned from older women. Yvette was twenty-one. It meant she had five years to have this precious fling. And the fling meant, at the moment, the gypsy.... [tags: Virgin Gypsy]
1499 words (4.3 pages)
- What started out as an ordinary day turned out to be one if the worst tragedies in the history of Bangladesh – the fire at Nimtoli in Dhaka. I sat in shock as I saw the news reports of the tragic incident showing numerous buildings on fire burning mercilessly, people running in havoc with no idea where loved ones are and yet others trapped inside the buildings, screaming, being burned alive. However, nothing seemed to have any effect on the ruthless fire which kept on burning, claiming as many lives as it could, turning a deaf ear to the desperate cries of hundreds of people.... [tags: Literary Analysis, Virginia Woolf]
1761 words (5 pages)
- ... Symptoms of blood agent poisoning depend on the concentration and the exposure time. The next type of agent is called blood agents. People killed by blood agents have bright red blood because the agent stops the use of the oxygen in the blood by the body's cells. They affect the body by being absorbed into the blood, they act very quickly, and they are manifested at room temperature. Blood agents affect the eyes, along with the respitory tract. Small exposture to blood agents has little to no effect but long exposure causes dizziness, weakness and nausea, which stop with the exposure, but long-time exposure can cause mild symptoms followed by permanent brain damage and muscle paralysis.... [tags: chemical, properties, agent, defotiants]
1657 words (4.7 pages)
- The essay The Death of the Moth by Virginia Woolf, is a piece of literature that describes the physical struggle of a dying moth and also, an inner struggle that the writer is experiencing as well. Through these struggles that each of the characters in the story endures, the audience sees a connection through both subjects. Analyzing and describing this complex essay structure can be done by evaluating the meaning and metaphors used by the author to portray the message of the story, which will allow the audience to comprehend what the true meaning of the essay is and come to understand the lesson of the story.... [tags: Analysis The Death of the Moth]
639 words (1.8 pages)
- Iraq Chemical Warfare Iraq’s research in chemical weapons began in the 1970s; it was not until the 1980s that they would begin mass production of chemical agents. At this period of time, Iraq required a great deal of help from foreign suppliers and their imports (Al- Zaman, 2003; Gosden, 1998). Iraq did not become a visible target on the United Nations radar until 1982, when Iraq killed between 50-100 Iranian Soldiers with Nerve Agent; later more Iranian Soldiers would die due to the side effects of dehydration and heat stroke (Al- Zaman, 2003; Gosden, 1998).... [tags: chemical agents, foreign suppliers]
1050 words (3 pages)
- Chemical Kinetics is the branch of chemistry that studies the speed at which a chemical reaction occur and the factor that influence this speed. What is meant by the speed of a reaction is the rate at which the concentrations of reactants and products change within a time period. Some reactions occur almost instantaneously, while others take days or years. Chemical kinetics understanding I used in the process of designing drugs, controlling pollution and the processing of food. Most of the time chemical kinetics is used to speed or to increase the rate of a reaction rather than to maximize the amount of product.... [tags: Chemical Kinetics: Enzymes]
1088 words (3.1 pages)
- The fascination with exoticism was more and more prevalent within romantic compositions as there was an increased yearning for far off lands within the composer’s imagination. ‘Composers of such works were not terribly interested in authenticity; their primary concern was to create a picturesque atmosphere that would appeal to audiences.’(Machlis p.190) Bizet romanticized gypsy culture in his opera and through the character, ‘Carmen’. The libretto gives off ideas in relation to the emerging theme of ‘naturalism’, where much focus was given to the working class and their suffering.... [tags: essays research papers]
1094 words (3.1 pages)