Declining water resources are one of the causes of the efforts to raise the productivity of the traditional rain-fed farming in West Africa and have affected the growing season and water conservation. With the shortage of water comes the potential for conflict between several African countries.
Water resources are declining in West Africa. The annual renewable water resources in West Africa reported by the World Bank in 1994 was about 350 billion cubic meters (1 cubic meter = 35.3 cubic feet). This averages out to 1,400 cu m per person per year, which is less than 20 percent of the world median water consumption per person (Rogers, 1997, 1). Water availability per capita is predicted to drop to less than one-half the present inadequate levels by 2025 (Ayub, 1994,1).
North African countries are also entering a critical dilemma regarding declining water resources. At the rates of their water consumption, all available water resources will be used up within 15 years. In both the northern and western regions, water demand is continuing to rise because of growing populations and expanding economies. For instance, in Burkina Faso, the women must walk 20 miles just to get a jar of water for their families (Ayub, 1994, 1).
Traditional rain-fed farming in West Africa has always been difficult. Seven of the West African countries are among the poorest in the world,1 so they have to continue the traditional method. Despite the extremely harsh environment, agriculture plays the most important factor in the economy. Farming supports 75 - 90 percent of the population while only four percent of the land can be classified as arable. The d...
... middle of paper ...
...l. 159 (July, 1993): 209-218.
Ayub, Mahmood Ali, and Ulrich Kuffner. "Water Management in the Maghreb." Finance and Development. no Vol no. (June 1994): 28-29.
Day, John C. Soil and Water Management in West Africa." Foreign Affairs. 289 (October 23, 1989): 1-10.
Pearce, Fred. "Water Supply: The World's Next Challenge." New Scientist. 129 (March 23, 1991): 34-40.
Moorehead, R. "Access to resources in the Niger Inland delta, Mali. Environmental Issues in African Development Planning. Ed. J. Seeley and W. M. Adams.
Rogers, Peter. "Water Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa." Britannica Online. [CD-ROM.] http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=boy/98/L04181. html&bold=on&sw=. 1998.
Scudder, Thayer. "River Basin Projects in Africa." Environment. 31 (March, 1989): 4-31.
Starr, Joyce R. Starr. "Water Wars." Foreign Policy. 82 (Spring 1991): 17-36.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- During the last three decades, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus have taken the lives of many women and men in Africa, as well as infecting their unborn children. Is there enough being done to eradicate this disease in Africa, and will the cost of these treatments limit those who do not have the available income to afford these drugs. Scientist and researchers have worked over the years to find a cure or vaccine for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, but it remains the most incurable infection in the world.... [tags: Africa ]
1625 words (4.6 pages)
- The Emergence of HIV in South Africa Much like the emergence of HIV in the United States, the first HIV cases in South Africa were found in the homosexual male population. In 1983, two homosexual, South African men passed away from opportunistic infections associated with autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the months following, many other homosexual men became infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which caused the people of South Africa to consider AIDS a disease that solely infected homosexuals.... [tags: Africa ]
2281 words (6.5 pages)
- Africa has many issues going on, but the one issue in specific that I am going to talk about is the poverty and health of Somalia, and the whole of Africa. Somalia is the poorest country in the world and they have a very weak health system. Africa is also not doing very well economically. Africa is the poorest Continent in the world. Every single one of the top ten poorest countries is in Africa. First, off I am going to talk about the health system. Here are some quick facts about the health of the people in Africa.... [tags: africa, health issues]
1402 words (4 pages)
- The matriarchal structure of Juan and Lupe’s families are key factor in the molding of each of them into each a unique person that just so happen to fit with each other perfectly. Doña Guadalupe is a woman of great strength and power, power and strength which she draws from her devout faith and her deep and loving compassion for her family, and power and strength which is passed down to her children. “‘Well, then, come in,’ she said, deciding that she could be handle this innocent-girl-stealing coyote inside.... [tags: Rain of Gold Essays]
930 words (2.7 pages)
- Self Discovery in Saul Bellow's Henderson the Rain King Have you ever felt like a complete social out cast. Some one who has trouble fitting in and has never quite found their true calling. Being shunned by those closest to him and being unaccepted by society, the character in this novel is a perfect example. Saul Bellow's character Eugene Henderson, in, Henderson the Rain King, (1959), is a man who struggles to change his ways and find out his true calling. In this novel, a 55-year old man, tries to get through a mid-life crisis.... [tags: Henderson the Rain King]
610 words (1.7 pages)
- Several decades ago, Zimbabwe was a country with good prospects, being the most rapidly developing African country. Nevertheless, few countries in Africa managed to continue prospering in XXI century, but Zimbabwe did not. Zimbabwean economy lies at the bottom of GDP ratings, faced one of the largest rates of hyperinflation in common history and does not develop due to corrupt administration and insufficient policy. Moreover, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is responsible for printing money for government spending while Zimbabwean people are dying as a cause of famine, venereal diseases and poverty.... [tags: Economy, Africa]
1054 words (3 pages)
- Marriage in Ernest Hemingway's Cat in the Rain In today's society, people have the assumptions that we have evolved far beyond past cultural notions and marital stereotypes. The reality to this is that we are not so superior and tend to take the easy way out in relationships. This is reflected through our atrocious divorce rate. The American wife in Ernest Hemingway's 'Cat in the Rain,' although controlled by her husband, George, is an obvious victim of marital neglect. While vacationing in Italy, the romance capital of the world, George's use of control and carelessness cause the wife to focus on a stray cat for fulfillment.... [tags: Ernest Hemingway Cat Rain Essays]
1138 words (3.3 pages)
- The Rain Man The Rain Man stars Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. The movie was made in 1988. The movie is about an autistic man named Raymon, who is a idiot savant played by Dustin Hoffman and his fast, talking self absorbed, egocentric brother Charlie Babbitt, who is played by Tom Cruise. A egocentric person is a person with the simple recognition that every living thing views the world from a unique, self-oriented perspective(LIFE: Inherently Egocentric written by James Craig Green http://pw2.netcom.com/~zeno7/ego.html).... [tags: Movie Film Rain Man Rainman Essays]
1713 words (4.9 pages)
- Imperialism in Africa Imperialism is defined as one country’s domination of the political, economic, and social life of another country. In Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imperialism was present and growing. The main countries involved in the imperialism in Africa were the French, German, and Great Britain. The French’s empire was mainly in North and West Africa while Britain’s colonies were scattered throughout the continent. Germany ruled over such countries as Tanganyika, Togoland, and Cameroon, until their defeat in World War I.... [tags: Imperialism Africa Government Essays]
954 words (2.7 pages)
- Acid Rain Acid rain has become an environmental concern of global importance within the last decade. With the increasing environmental awareness of the "unhealthy" condition of our planet earth the concern about acid rain has not lessened. In brief, acid rain is rain with pH values of less than 5.6. When dealing with acid rain one must study and understand the process of making Sulfuric acid. In this project we will take an in depth look into the production of sulfuric acid, some of its uses and the effects of it as a pollutant in our environment.... [tags: Acid Rain Environmental Nature Essays]
3205 words (9.2 pages)