As children growing up in the United States, educated through our public schools, we learned about the institution of slavery, which was an integral part of life in our country for nearly 300 years. We do not usually question the historical facts we learned about slavery or ask how we know so much about the history of these people (the enslaved Africans in America) who left behind so little written record. In the classroom, archeologists do not receive much credit, but it is largely through their work and research that we have been able to learn about “America’s diverse ethnic heritage” (Singleton 155). In the 1960’s, excavations of slave cabins inspired a new area of research. Today’s field of African-American Archaeology was born from these first digs, only three decades ago. Archaeologists carefully and skillfully collect artifacts, which are “tangible material remains and by-products of behavior” (Singleton 156). Through historical and ethnographic analysis and interpretation, archeologists are able to put together pieces of the daily lives and living conditions of the first African-Americans.
One such African-American archaeological dig, called the African Burial Ground Project, is currently taking place in New York City. In 1991, the construction crew for a new, $276 million federal office building stumbled across the skeletons of what are now known to be early African slaves. The United States General Services Administration (GSA), the government agency that handles the funding and administration of all federal property, began further exploration of the site. Today we know that this “plot of land is just a sliver of the 18th ...
... middle of paper ...
...es 21 Mar. 1999: Sec. 14, pg. 6.
Gaines, Patrice. “Bones of Forebears; Howard U. Study Stirs Ghanaian Chiefs to Honor Ages-Old Link to U.S. Blacks.” The Washington Post 3 Aug. 1995: B01.
LaFee, Scott. “Grave Injustice; Archaeologists are Beginning to Unearth the Buried, Tragic Secrets of America’s First Slaves.” The San Diego Union-Tribune 15 Sep. 1999: E-1.
“New Chief of African Burial Ground Project.” The New York Beacon 16 June 1999: 12.
Satchell, Michael. “Only Remember Us.” U.S. News & World Report 28 July 1997: 51-52.
Singleton, Theresa A. “The Archaeology of Slave Life.” Before Freedom Came: African-American Life I the Antebellum South. Ed. Edward D.C. Campbell, Jr. and Kym S. Rice. Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1991. 155-175.
Staples, Brent. “Manhattan’s African Dead.” Editorial. The New York Times 22 May 1995: A14.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- “Che cosa vuoi con vita?” Imagine that you are a fourteen year old boy or girl growing up in Italy. You have just finished your middle school education and are in the process of transitioning to high school. However, this question that was just asked to you has nothing to do with high school at all. This Italian phrase is the equivalent of this English question: “What do you want to do with your life?” For many young Italians, high school is the starting point of their future careers unlike many high schools in the United States where you just complete a college preparatory program of study.... [tags: Education, High school, College, School]
1525 words (4.4 pages)
- In 2013 spending on NASA will be at the lowest point in the last four years because the United States government is in extreme debt. Many feel that this will lead to a halt on all space exploration and technological advancements in the world of Astronomy. In my opinion I feel that this lack of funding for NASA will thoroughly hinder progress for future generations as well as our own. Why should scientists be impelled to work tirelessly to search the vast reaches of space. There’s one crucial answer that we all must come to terms on if we wish to ensure the continuation of the human legacy; Resources.... [tags: space, money, technology, research]
518 words (1.5 pages)
- Within the federal government’s budget education is among the most important yet in the year of 2012 the federal government only spent $107.6 billion out of 3.7 trillion which amounts to 3% on education. Compared to other funding categories in the government’s fiscal year of 2012's budget it's clear to see that education isn’t as important to the government officials as they would like us to believe. Many Americans today are lead to believe that education is important to government officials and it receives an adequate amount of funding because they don't know how much funding is put into the other categories of the budget.... [tags: school system, education budget]
1369 words (3.9 pages)
- I consider funding, lack of professional respect, and technology to be the major issues in public education today. The one I think is the most important is the lack of professional respect. We are all educated individuals working to educate and inspire young minds, but we are not seen that way. I have seen memes for years about how educations is more about baby sitting than inspiration. I hate this idea that I am a glorified baby sitter. I consider teaching to be the most valuable profession there is but society does not see it as such.... [tags: Education, Teacher, School, Want]
700 words (2 pages)
- Imagine going to school one day, and you find out that your teacher is being laid off because the school can not afford to keep them. Your school has decided to triple the amount of students in one class. Urban education has been impacted tremendously by insufficient funding, and overcrowding schools. Urban schools are insufficiently funded causing, smaller amounts of teaching staff, outdated supplies, and poor building conditions. Urban schools are also overcrowded, which causes stressful working conditions and negative effects on classroom activities.... [tags: Education, School, Poverty, Teacher]
966 words (2.8 pages)
- School funding is a recurring issue in the modern era. Debates ranging from give schools more money, to get rid of the system in place and reform a new idea have been plaguing the world over the years. “The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, signed in 2009, provided more than $100 billion in education aid to offset budget cuts..” (School Finance). Later, “Congress provided an additional $10 billion in 2010 to avert mass teacher layoffs (Education Week, "Total Recovery Act")” (School Funding).... [tags: School Districs, Funding, Educational Systems]
1496 words (4.3 pages)
- Lack of Funding Of Sports Programs Lack of Funding in Sports Programs is causing schools and after school programs to drop sports all together. Sports is good in not only helping individuals cope with problems, but learn to interact with others and the importance of team work. Educational departments are cutting funding for these programs and this is hurting children for many reasons. This paper will help people understand how important sports are and what is being done with the money that is supposed to go to sports.... [tags: Argumentative Persuasive]
801 words (2.3 pages)
- As colleges’ funds dry up, colleges must turn to the public to further support higher education. By raising state taxes, colleges can collect funds to help improve the school’s budgets. The state provides funds from the taxes for colleges to receive a certain amount for each student currently enrolled. All community and traditional four year colleges collect these funds in order to maintain the school’s budget. As reporter, Eric Kelderman states, “less than a third of colleges’ budget is based from state taxes”.... [tags: Fundung Higher Education, Schools, Colleges]
1167 words (3.3 pages)
- "If we pollute the air, water and soil that keep us alive and well, and destroy the biodiversity that allows natural systems to function, no amount of money will save us." -- David Suzuki Imagine this: bulldozers growl and grind through a local field, while the whine of chainsaws echoes from a nearby grove of trees. The trees crash to the ground, only to be cut up for firewood or sent to a sawmill, and the remaining ground is cleared of stumps and plowed. The tall grasses and brush in the field are demolished, leaving behind churned-up soil.... [tags: Loss of Biodiversity]
1326 words (3.8 pages)
- Key Terms Over the years there have been many new state of the art sports stadiums that have been built in the United States. In fact from 1993 until 2013 there were 101 new sports facilities built on American soil, most notably AT&T Stadium (formally known as Cowboy Stadium) home to the Dallas Cowboys in 2009. Owner of the Cowboys and AT&T Stadium, multi-billionaire Jerry Jones set a new precedent in regards to sporting facilities but the one thing that AT&T stadium has in common with almost all of the other sporting facilities built over the past 20 years, is that they all received direct public funding.... [tags: politics, public funding, economics]
998 words (2.9 pages)