Volodymyr Monomakh II was born in 1053. He was the son of Grand Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavych I, also known as Volodymyr The Great, and Irina (8). Irina was the daughter of the Byzantine emperor, Constantine Monomachos, whom Volodymyr Monomakh was named after. Monomakh married the daughter of the English king Harold II, named Gytha, and had one child with her named Mstislav (9).
Vsevolod Yaroslavych ruled Kiev from 1078 to 1093. Monomakh became active in the politics of Kiev, helping his father and uncle Izyaslav I, who ruled Kiev intermittently between 1054 and 78, defeat his cousins (8). While his father was alive, Monomakh ruled the Smolensk principality from 1067 to 1125 and the Chernihiv principality from 1078 to 94. He also participated in diplomatic missions, and successfully led 13 military campaigns. After his father’s death in 1093, Monomakh was named the prince of the southern town Pereyaslavl in 1094, but not Kiev (1). He supported his cousin Sviatopolk II Iziaslavych being named the grand duke of Kiev, as he wished to avoid warfare among the Princes of Russia (6). Although Pereyaslavl was the major land Monomakh ruled over, he also controlled Rostov, Suzdal, and other Northern provinces. He founded several towns in these lands, one of which was his namesake, Vladimir, which later became the capital of Russia (9). He gained popularity as a result of his successful campaigns in both 1103 and 1111 against the Cumans, who were nomadic invaders always posing a threat to Russian lands (6). Monomakh gained rule of Kiev after both Sviatopolk died in 1113 and the Kiev Uprising of 1113, being named the grand prince of Kiev, or Yaroslav The Wise, until his death on May 19th, 1125.
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http://ukraine-today.com/reference/facts/3.shtml, February 13, 2005.
http://www.kmu.gov.ua/kmu/control/en/publish/article?showHidden=1&art_id=6249350&cat_id=32672&ctime=1084461347756, February 13, 2005.
February 13, 2005. 6. Rioukhina, Evelina, UNECE. Kiev or Kyiv?
“Vladimir II”. Columbia Encyclopedia. 2005. Columbia Encyclopedia Online. February 13, 2005. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/V/Vladim2.asp
“Vladimir II Monomakh.” Encylcopedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopedia
Britannica Premium Service. February 13, 2005.
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